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Literary structure (chiasmus, chiasm) of Book of Job

Chiasmus and Concentric Structure of divided by 4


4-1

1 Job's fortunes and sufferings (1:1-2:10)
  2 Job's friends (2:11-13)
    3 Job curses the day he was born (3:1-26)
      4 First dialogue of Eliphaz and Job (4:1-7:21)
    5 First dialogue of Bildad and Job (8:1-10:22)
  6 First dialogue of Zophar and Job (11:1-14:22)
7 Second dialogue of Eliphaz and Job (15:1-17:16)
Former halfRelationLatter half
1 Job's fortunes and sufferings (1:1-2:10)
1:1 In the land of Uz there was a blameless and upright man named Job, who feared God and avoided evil.(1:1)
Fear to God7 Second dialogue of Eliphaz and Job (15:1-17:16)
15:4 You in fact do away with piety, and you lessen devotion toward God, (15:4)
2 Job's friends (2:11-13)
2:13 Then they sat down upon the ground with him seven days and seven nights, but none of them spoke a word to him; for they saw how great was his suffering.(2:13)
Silence / Argument6 First dialogue of Zophar and Job (11:1-14:22)
11:2 Should not the man of many words be answered, or must the garrulous man necessarily be right? (11:2)
3 Job curses the day he was born (3:1-26)
Let them curse it who curse the sea, the appointed disturbers of Leviathan! (3:8)
Marine monster5 First dialogue of Bildad and Job (8:1-10:22)
He is God and he does not relent; the helpers of Rahab bow beneath him. (9:13)

4-1-1

1 Job's fortunes and sufferings (1:1-2:10)
  2 Job's friends (2:11-13)
  3 Job curses the day he was born (3:1-26)
4 First dialogue of Eliphaz and Job (4:1-7:21)
Former halfRelationLatter half
1 Job's fortunes and sufferings (1:1-2:10)
1:1 In the land of Uz there was a blameless and upright man named Job, who feared God and avoided evil.(1:1)
Fear to God4 First dialogue of Eliphaz and Job (4:1-7:21)
4:6 Is not your piety a source of confidence, and your integrity of life your hope? (4:6)
2 Job's friends (2:11-13)
2:13 Then they sat down upon the ground with him seven days and seven nights, but none of them spoke a word to him; for they saw how great was his suffering.(2:13)
Hardship of Job3 Job curses the day he was born (3:1-26)
3:1 After this, Job opened his mouth and cursed his day. (3:1)

4-1-2

4 First dialogue of Eliphaz and Job (4:1-7:21)
  5 First dialogue of Bildad and Job (8:1-10:22)
  6 First dialogue of Zophar and Job (11:1-14:22)
7 Second dialogue of Eliphaz and Job (15:1-17:16)
Former halfRelationLatter half
4 First dialogue of Eliphaz and Job (4:1-7:21)
4:6 Is not your piety a source of confidence, and your integrity of life your hope? (4:6)
Fear to God7 Second dialogue of Eliphaz and Job (15:1-17:16)
15:4 You in fact do away with piety, and you lessen devotion toward God, (15:4)
5 First dialogue of Bildad and Job (8:1-10:22)
8:6 Should you be blameless and upright, surely now he will awake for you and restore your rightful domain; (8:6)
Job's innocence6 First dialogue of Zophar and Job (11:1-14:22)
11:4 Shall you say: "My teaching is pure, and I am clean in your sight"? (11:4)

4-2

7 Second dialogue of Eliphaz and Job (15:1-17:16)
  8 Second dialogue of Bildad and Job (18:1-19:29)
    9 Second dialogue of Zophar and Job (20:1-21:34)
      10 Third dialogue of Eliphaz and Job (22:1-24:25)
    11 Third dialogue of Bildad and Job (25:1-26:14)
  12 Words of Job (27:1-23)
13 Where wisdom is found (28:1-28)
Former halfRelationLatter half
7 Second dialogue of Eliphaz and Job (15:1-17:16)
15:8 Are you privy to the counsels of God, and do you restrict wisdom to yourself? (15:8)
Gaining wisdom13 Where wisdom is found (28:1-28)
28:12 But whence can wisdom be obtained, and where is the place of understanding? (28:12)
8 Second dialogue of Bildad and Job (18:1-19:29)
18:5 Truly, the light of the wicked is extinguished; no flame brightens his hearth. (18:5)
The wicked12 Words of Job (27:1-23)
27:13 This is the portion of a wicked man from God, the inheritance an oppressor receives from the Almighty:(27:13)
9 Second dialogue of Zophar and Job (20:1-21:34)
21:22 Can anyone teach God knowledge, seeing that he judges those on high?(21:22)
Giving wisdom11 Third dialogue of Bildad and Job (25:1-26:14)
26:3 How you counsel, as though he had no wisdom; how profuse is the advice you offer! (26:3)

4-2-1

7 Second dialogue of Eliphaz and Job (15:1-17:16)
  8 Second dialogue of Bildad and Job (18:1-19:29)
  9 Second dialogue of Zophar and Job (20:1-21:34)
10 Third dialogue of Eliphaz and Job (22:1-24:25)
Former halfRelationLatter half
7 Second dialogue of Eliphaz and Job (15:1-17:16)
15:23 They know that a day of darkness is ready at hand 15:23)
Covered by darkness10 Third dialogue of Eliphaz and Job (22:1-24:25)
22:11 Or darkness, in which you cannot see; a deluge of waters covers you. (22:11)
8 Second dialogue of Bildad and Job (18:1-19:29)
19:11 His wrath he has kindled against me; he counts me among his enemies. (19:11)
Becoming a enemy of God9 Second dialogue of Zophar and Job (20:1-21:34)
21:7 Why do the wicked survive, grow old, become mighty in power? (21:7)

4-2-2

10 Third dialogue of Eliphaz and Job (22:1-24:25)
  11 Third dialogue of Bildad and Job (25:1-26:14)
  12 Words of Job (27:1-23)
13 Where wisdom is found (28:1-28)
Former halfRelationLatter half
10 Third dialogue of Eliphaz and Job (22:1-24:25)
22:25 Then the Almighty himself shall be your gold and your sparkling silver. (22:25)
What is better than gold and silver13 Where wisdom is found (28:1-28)
28:15 Solid gold cannot purchase it, nor can its price be paid with silver. (28:15)
11 Third dialogue of Bildad and Job (25:1-26:14)
26:4 With whose help have you uttered those words, and whose is the breath that comes forth from you? (26:4)
The breath12 Words of Job (27:1-23)
27:3 So long as I still have life in me and the breath of God is in my nostrils, (27:3)

4-3

13 Where wisdom is found (28:1-28)
  14 Words of Job (29:1-31:40)
    15 Elifu rebukes Job and Job's friend (32:1-33:33)
      16 Elifu proclaims God's justice (34:1-37)
    17 Elifu condemns self-righteousness (35:1-16)
  18 Elifu proclaims God's majesty (36:1-37:24)
19 The LORD answers Job (38:1-39:30)
Former halfRelationLatter half
13 Where wisdom is found (28:1-28)
28:20 Whence, then, comes wisdom, and where is the place of understanding? (28:20)
Where is 19 The LORD answers Job (38:1-39:30)
38:4 Where were you when I founded the earth? Tell me, if you have understanding. (38:4)
14 Words of Job (29:1-31:40)
Is it not calamity for the unrighteous, and woe for evildoers? (31:3)
Judgment of God18 Elifu proclaims God's majesty (36:1-37:24)
He withholds not the just man's rights, but grants vindication to the oppressed, (36:6)
15 Elifu rebukes Job and Job's friend (32:1-33:33)
33:9 "I am clean and without transgression; I am innocent; there is no guilt in me. 33:10 Yet he invents pretexts against me and reckons me as his enemy. 33:11 He puts my feet in the stocks; he watches all my ways!" (33:9-11)
Elihus blaming against Jobs word17 Elifu condemns self-righteousness (35:1-16)
Do you think it right to say, "I am just rather than God?" (35:2)

4-3-1

13 Where wisdom is found (28:1-28)
  14 Words of Job (29:1-31:40)
  15 Elifu rebukes Job and Job's friend (32:1-33:33)
16 Elifu proclaims God's justice (34:1-37)
Former halfRelationLatter half
13 Where wisdom is found (28:1-28)
28:12 But whence can wisdom be obtained, and where is the place of understanding? (28:12)
Wisdom16 Elifu proclaims God's justice (34:1-37)
34:2 Hear, O wise men, my discourse, and you that have knowledge, hear me! (34:2)
14 Words of Job (29:1-31:40)
30:17 My frame takes no rest by night; my inward parts seethe and will not be stilled. (30:17)
Great pain15 Elifu rebukes Job and Job's friend (32:1-33:33)
33:19 Or a man is chastened on his bed by pain and unceasing suffering within his frame, (33:19)

4-3-2

16 Elifu proclaims God's justice (34:1-37)
  17 Elifu condemns self-righteousness (35:1-16)
  18 Elifu proclaims God's majesty (36:1-37:24)
19 The LORD answers Job (38:1-39:30)
Former halfRelationLatter half
16 Elifu proclaims God's justice (34:1-37)
34:35 "Job speaks without intelligence, and his words are without sense." (34:35)
Ignorance of Job19 The LORD answers Job (38:1-39:30)
38:2 Who is this that obscures divine plans with words of ignorance? (38:2)
17 Elifu condemns self-righteousness (35:1-16)
35:7 If you are righteous, what do you give him, or what does he receive from your hand? (35:7)
Righteousness18 Elifu proclaims God's majesty (36:1-37:24)
36:3 I will bring my knowledge from afar, and to my Maker I will accord the right. (36:3)

4-4

19 The LORD answers Job (38:1-39:30)
  20 Words of the LORD (40:1-2)
    21 Words of Job (40:3-5)
      22 Words of the LORD (40:6-41:26)
    23 Words of Job (42:1-6)
  24 Job's friends are humiliated (42:7-10)
25 Job's fortunes (42:11-17)
Former halfRelationLatter half
19 The LORD answers Job (38:1-39:30)
38:4 Where were you when I founded the earth? Tell me, if you have understanding. (38:4)
The almighty25 Job's fortunes (42:11-17)
42:12 Thus the LORD blessed the latter days of Job more than his earlier ones. For he had fourteen thousand sheep, six thousand camels, a thousand yoke of oxen, and a thousand she-asses. (42:12)
20 Words of the LORD (40:1-2)
Words of the LORD to Job
Words of the LORD24 Job's friends are humiliated (42:7-10)
Words of the LORD to Job's friends
21 Words of Job (40:3-5)
Job's response to the LORD
Job's response to the LORD23 Words of Job (42:1-6)
Job's response to the LORD

4-4-1

19 The LORD answers Job (38:1-39:30)
  20 Words of the LORD (40:1-2)
  21 Words of Job (40:3-5)
22 Words of the LORD (40:6-41:26)
Former halfRelationLatter half
19 The LORD answers Job (38:1-39:30)
38:1 Then the LORD addressed Job out of the storm and said:(38:1)
The LORD addresses22 Words of the LORD (40:6-41:26)
40:6 Then the LORD addressed Job out of the storm and said: (40:6)
20 Words of the LORD (40:1-2)
40:1 The LORD then said to Job: (40:1)
Responses between Job and the LORD21 Words of Job (40:3-5)
40:3 Then Job answered the LORD and said: (40:3)

4-4-2

22 Words of the LORD (40:6-41:26)
  23 Words of Job (42:1-6)
  24 Job's friends are humiliated (42:7-10)
25 Job's fortunes (42:11-17)
Former halfRelationLatter half
22 Words of the LORD (40:6-41:26)
41:3 Who has assailed him and come off safe-- Who under all the heavens? (41:3)
Blessing of the LORD25 Job's fortunes (42:11-17)
42:12 Thus the LORD blessed the latter days of Job more than his earlier ones. For he had fourteen thousand sheep, six thousand camels, a thousand yoke of oxen, and a thousand she-asses. (42:12)
23 Words of Job (42:1-6)
42:6 Therefore I disown what I have said, and repent in dust and ashes. (42:6)
Repentance24 Job's friends are humiliated (42:7-10)
42:9 Then Eliphaz the Temanite, and Bildad the Shuhite, and Zophar the Naamathite, went and did as the LORD had commanded them. And the LORD accepted the intercession of Job. (42:9)

Citations of the Bible are from New American Bible, New Revised Standard Version and New Jerusalem Bible.

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Literary Structure of the Bible by Hajime Murai is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
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