FAQ       Top  >  Literary Structure of the Bible  >  Book of Isaiah  >  2

Literary structure (chiasmus, chiasm) of Book of Isaiah

Chiasmus and Concentric Structure of divided by 2


2-1

1 The wickednedd of Judah (1:1-20)
  2 The degenerate city (1:21-31)
    3 The future house of God (2:1-22)
      4 The daughters of Zion (3:1-26_4:1)
        5 The future glory of the survivors in Zion (4:2-6)
          6 The song of the unfruitiful vineyard (5:1-7)
            7 Social injustice denounced (5:8-25)
              8 Foreign invasion predicted (5:26-30)
                9 A vision of God in the Temple (6:1-13)
                  10 The sign of Immanuel (7:1-25)
                    11 With us is God (8:1-20)
                      12 Waiting for the LORD (8:21-9:6)
                        13 Judgment on arrogance and oppression (9:7-10:4)
                          14 Arrogant Assyria also judged (10:5-19)
                            15 The repentant remnant of Israel (10:20-34)
                              16 The peaceful kingdom (11:1-16)
                                17 Thanksgiving and praise (12:1-6)
                                  18 Proclamation against Babylon (13:1-22)
                                    19 Downfall of the king of Babylon (14:1-27)
                                      20 An oracle concerning Philistia (14:28-32)
                                        21 An oracle concerning Moab (15:1-16:14)
                                      22 An oracle concerning Damascus (17:1-11)
                                    23 An oracle concerning Ethiopia (17:12-18:7)
                                  24 An oracle concerning Egypt (19:1-15)
                                25 Egypt, Assria and Israel blessed (19:16-25)
                              26 Isaiah dramatizes the conquest of Egypt and Ethiopia (20:1-6)
                            27 An oracle concerning Babylon (21:1-10)
                          28 An oracle concerning Edom (21:11-17)
                        29 A warning of destruction of Jerusalem (22:1-14)
                      30 Denunciation of self-seeking officials (22:15-25)
                    31 An oracle concerning Tyre (23:1-18)
                  32 Impending judgment on the Earth (24:1-13)
                33 The songs from the end of the earth (24:14-23)
              34 Praise for deliverance from oppression (25:1-12)
            35 Judah's song of victory (26:1-21)
          36 A vineyard of the LORD (27:1-13)
        37 Fall of Samaria (28:1-8)
      38 Judgment on corrupt rulers, priests, and prophets (28:9-13)
    39 A stone in Zion (28:14-22)
  40 Farmer's wisdom (28:23-29)
41 The siege of Jerusalem (29:1-8)
Former halfRelationLatter half
1 The wickednedd of Judah (1:1-20)
1:8 And daughter Zion is left like a hut in a vineyard, Like a shed in a melon patch, like a city blockaded.(1:8)
Seized Jerusalem41 The siege of Jerusalem (29:1-8)
29:2 But I will bring distress upon Ariel, with mourning and grief. You shall be to me like Ariel, (29:2)
2 The degenerate city (1:21-31)
1:28 Rebels and sinners alike shall be crushed, those who desert the LORD shall be consumed. (1:28)
Being crushed / not being crushed40 Farmer's wisdom (28:23-29)
28:28 No, he does not thresh it unendingly, nor does he crush it with his noisy cartwheels and horses. (28:28)
3 The future house of God (2:1-22)
2:3 many peoples shall come and say: "Come, let us climb the LORD'S mountain, to the house of the God of Jacob, That he may instruct us in his ways, and we may walk in his paths."For from Zion shall go forth instruction, and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem.(2:3)
Foundation of Zion39 A stone in Zion (28:14-22)
28:16 Therefore, thus says the Lord GOD: See, I am laying a stone in Zion, a stone that has been tested, A precious cornerstone as a sure foundation; he who puts his faith in it shall not be shaken.(28:16)
4 The daughters of Zion (3:1-26_4:1)
3:25 Your men will fall by the sword, and your champions, in war; (3:25)
Stumbling38 Judgment on corrupt rulers, priests, and prophets (28:9-13)
28:13 So that when they walk, they stumble backward, broken, ensnared, and captured. (28:13)
5 The future glory of the survivors in Zion (4:2-6)
4:2 On that day, The branch of the LORD will be luster and glory, and the fruit of the earth will be honor and splendor for the survivors of Israel.(4:2)
Glorious beauty37 Fall of Samaria (28:1-8)
28:1 Woe to the majestic garland of the drunkard Ephraim, To the fading blooms of his glorious beauty, on the head of him who is stupefied with wine.(28:1)
6 The song of the unfruitiful vineyard (5:1-7)
5:1 Let me now sing of my friend, my friend's song concerning his vineyard. My friend had a vineyard on a fertile hillside;(5:1)
Song of vineyard36 A vineyard of the LORD (27:1-13)
27:2 On that day-- The pleasant vineyard, sing about it! (27:2)
7 Social injustice denounced (5:8-25)
5:25 Therefore the wrath of the LORD blazes against his people, he raises his hand to strike them; When the mountains quake, their corpses shall be like refuse in the streets. (5:25)
Corpses of the people35 Judah's song of victory (26:1-21)
26:19 But your dead shall live, their corpses shall rise; awake and sing, you who lie in the dust.(26:19)
8 Foreign invasion predicted (5:26-30)
5:26 He will give a signal to a far-off nation, and whistle to them from the ends of the earth; speedily and promptly will they come.(5:26)
The LORD and foreigner34 Praise for deliverance from oppression (25:1-12)
25:3 Therefore a strong people will honor you, fierce nations will fear you. (25:3)
9 A vision of God in the Temple (6:1-13)
6:5 Then I said, "Woe is me, I am doomed! For I am a man of unclean lips, living among a people of unclean lips; yet my eyes have seen the King, the LORD of hosts!"(6:5)
Woe is me33 The songs from the end of the earth (24:14-23)
24:16 From the end of the earth we hear songs: "Splendor to the Just One!" But I said, "I am wasted, wasted away. Woe is me! The traitors betray: with treachery have the traitors betrayed! (24:16)
10 The sign of Immanuel (7:1-25)
7:23 On that day every place where there used to be a thousand vines, worth a thousand pieces of silver, shall be turned to briers and thorns. (7:23)
Ruin of crops32 Impending judgment on the Earth (24:1-13)
24:13 Thus it is within the land, and among the peoples, As with an olive tree after it is beaten, as with a gleaning when the vintage is done. (24:13)
11 With us is God (8:1-20)
8:7 Therefore the LORD raises against them the waters of the River, great and mighty (the king of Assyria and all his power). It shall rise above all its channels, and overflow all its banks; (8:7)
Invasion of Assyria31 An oracle concerning Tyre (23:1-18)
23:13 (This people is the land of the Chaldeans, not Assyria.) She whom the impious founded, setting up towers for her, Has had her castles destroyed, and has been turned into a ruin.(23:13)
12 Waiting for the LORD (8:21-9:6)
9:5 For a child is born to us, a son is given us; upon his shoulder dominion rests. They name him Wonder-Counselor, God-Hero, Father-Forever, Prince of Peace.(9:5)
Man of authority30 Denunciation of self-seeking officials (22:15-25)
22:21 I will clothe him with your robe, and gird him with your sash, and give over to him your authority. He shall be a father to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and to the house of Judah. (22:21)
13 Judgment on arrogance and oppression (9:7-10:4)
9:12 The people do not turn to him who struck them, nor seek the LORD of hosts.(9:12)
People never seek the LORD29 A warning of destruction of Jerusalem (22:1-14)
22:11 you made a reservoir between the two walls for the water of the old pool. But you did not look to the city's Maker, nor did you consider him who built it long ago. (22:11)
14 Arrogant Assyria also judged (10:5-19)
10:12 (But when the LORD has brought to an end all his work on Mount Zion and in Jerusalem, I will punish the utterance of the king of Assyrias proud heart, (10:12)
Ruin of invaders28 An oracle concerning Edom (21:11-17)
21:16 For thus says the Lord to me: In another year, like those of a hireling, all the glory of Kedar shall come to an end.(21:16)
15 The repentant remnant of Israel (10:20-34)
10:32 Even today he will halt at Nob, he will shake his fist at the mount of daughter Zion, the hill of Jerusalem!(10:32)
Attack of invaders27 An oracle concerning Babylon (21:1-10)
21:9 Here he comes now: a single chariot, a pair of horses; He calls out and says, 'Fallen, fallen is Babylon, And all the images of her gods are smashed to the ground.'" (21:9)
16 The peaceful kingdom (11:1-16)
11:11 On that day, The Lord shall again take it in hand to reclaim the remnant of his people that is left from Assyria and Egypt, Pathros, Ethiopia, and Elam, Shinar, Hamath, and the isles of the sea.(11:11)
Assyria and Egypt, Ethiopia26 Isaiah dramatizes the conquest of Egypt and Ethiopia (20:1-6)
20:4 so shall the king of Assyria lead away captives from Egypt, and exiles from Ethiopia, young and old, naked and barefoot, with buttocks uncovered (the shame of Egypt). (20:4)
17 Thanksgiving and praise (12:1-6)
12:4 and say on that day: Give thanks to the LORD, acclaim his name; among the nations make known his deeds, proclaim how exalted is his name. (12:4)
The LORD is revealed to foreigners25 Egypt, Assria and Israel blessed (19:16-25)
19:21 The LORD shall make himself known to Egypt, and the Egyptians shall know the LORD in that day; they shall offer sacrifices and oblations, and fulfill the vows they make to the LORD. (19:21)
18 Proclamation against Babylon (13:1-22)
judgment to Babylon
Judgment on foreign country24 An oracle concerning Egypt (19:1-15)
judgment to Egypt
19 Downfall of the king of Babylon (14:1-27)
14:2 The house of Israel will take them and bring them along to its place, and possess them as male and female slaves on the Lord's soil, making captives of its captors and ruling over its oppressors. (14:2)
A person who oppresses is oppressed23 An oracle concerning Ethiopia (17:12-18:7)
17:14 In the evening, they spread terror, before morning, they are gone! Such is the portion of those who despoil us, the lot of those who plunder us.(17:14)
20 An oracle concerning Philistia (14:28-32)
14:32 What will one answer the messengers of the nation? "The LORD has established Zion, and in her the afflicted of his people find refuge."(14:32)
People seek the LORD22 An oracle concerning Damascus (17:1-11)
17:7 On that day man shall look to his maker, his eyes turned toward the Holy One of Israel. (17:7)

2-2

41 The siege of Jerusalem (29:1-8)
  42 Drunken rulers (29:9-14)
    43 Hope for the future (29:15-24)
      44 The futility of reliance on Egypt (30:1-5)
        45 A rebellious people (30:6-18)
          46 God's promise to Zion (30:19-26)
            47 Judgment on Assyria (30:27-33)
              48 Alliance with Egypt is futile (31:1-9)
                49 Complacent women warned of disaster (32:1-20)
                  50 The land of the Majestic king (33:1-24)
                    51 Judgment on the nations (34:1-17)
                      52 The return of the redeemed to Zion (35:1-10)
                        53 Sennacherib threatens Jerusalem (36:1-37:38)
                          54 Hizekiah's illness (38:1-39:8)
                            55 God's people are comforted (40:1-11)
                              56 Creation by God (40:12-31)
                                57 Israel assured of God's help (41:1-26)
                                  58 The servant, a light to the nations (41:27-42:25)
                                    59 Israel's redemption (43:1-28)
                                      60 The absurdity of idol worship (44:1-28)
                                        61 Cyrus, God's instrument (45:1-17)
                                      62 Idols cannot save Babylon (45:18-46:13)
                                    63 The humiliation of Babylon (47:1-15)
                                  64 Fulfillment of the prophecy (48:1-11)
                                65 God the redeemer (48:12-22)
                              66 The servant's mission (49:1-6)
                            67 Zion's children to be brought home (49:7-50:3)
                          68 The sercant's humilitation and vindication (50:4-11)
                        69 Return to Zion (51:1-52:12)
                      70 The suffering servant (52:13-53:12)
                    71 Everlasting mercy (54:1-17)
                  72 Thecovenant extended to all who obey (55:1-56:12)
                73 A promise of help and healing (57:1-58:14)
              74 Injustice and oppression to be punished (59:1-21)
            75 God the glory of Zion (60:1-22)
          76 The good news of deliverance (61:1-11)
        77 The vindication and salvation of Zion (62:1-12)
      78 Vengeance on Edom (63:1-6)
    79 God's mercy remembered (63:7-64:11)
  80 The righteousness of God's judgment (65:1-25)
81 The reign and indignation of God (66:1-24)
Former halfRelationLatter half
41 The siege of Jerusalem (29:1-8)
29:6 you shall be visited by the LORD of hosts, With thunder, earthquake, and great noise, whirlwind, storm, and the flame of consuming fire. (29:6)
Fire of the LORD81 The reign and indignation of God (66:1-24)
66:15 Lo, the LORD shall come in fire, his chariots like the whirlwind, To wreak his wrath with burning heat and his punishment with fiery flames. (66:15)
42 Drunken rulers (29:9-14)
29:13 The Lord said: Since this people draws near with words only and honors me with their lips alone, though their hearts are far from me, And their reverence for me has become routine observance of the precepts of men, (29:13)
A person who is away from the LORD80 The righteousness of God's judgment (65:1-25)
65:5 Crying out, "Hold back, do not touch me; I am too sacred for you!" These things enkindle my wrath, a fire that burns all the day.(65:5)
43 Hope for the future (29:15-24)
29:18 On that day the deaf shall hear the words of a book; And out of gloom and darkness, the eyes of the blind shall see. (29:18)
Visually and audibly impaired79 God's mercy remembered (63:7-64:11)
64:3 such as they had not heard of from of old. No ear has ever heard, no eye ever seen, any God but you doing such deeds for those who wait for him. (64:3)
44 The futility of reliance on Egypt (30:1-5)
30:5 Neither help nor benefit (30:5)
No help78 Vengeance on Edom (63:1-6)
63:5 I looked about, but there was no one to help, I was appalled that there was no one to lend support; (63:5)
45 A rebellious people (30:6-18)
30:11 Out of the way! Out of our path! Let us hear no more of the Holy One of Israel." (30:11)
Don't prophesy / prophesy77 The vindication and salvation of Zion (62:1-12)
62:1 For Zion's sake I will not be silent, for Jerusalem's sake I will not be quiet (62:1)
46 God's promise to Zion (30:19-26)
30:26 The light of the moon will be like that of the sun and the light of the sun will be seven times greater (like the light of seven days). (30:26)
Increasing76 The good news of deliverance (61:1-11)
61:7 Since their shame was double and disgrace and spittle were their portion, They shall have a double inheritance in their land, everlasting joy shall be theirs. (61:7)
47 Judgment on Assyria (30:27-33)
30:29 You will sing as on a night when a feast is observed, And be merry of heart, as one marching along with a flute Toward the mountain of the LORD, toward the Rock of Israel, accompanied by the timbrels and lyres. (30:29)
Gathering to the LORD75 God the glory of Zion (60:1-22)
60:4 Raise your eyes and look about; they all gather and come to you: Your sons come from afar, and your daughters in the arms of their nurses. (60:4)
48 Alliance with Egypt is futile (31:1-9)
31:6 Return, O children of Israel, to him whom you have utterly deserted. (31:6)
Betrayal against the LORD74 Injustice and oppression to be punished (59:1-21)
59:12 For our offenses before you are many, our sins bear witness against us. Yes, our offenses are present to us, and our crimes we know: (59:12)
49 Complacent women warned of disaster (32:1-20)
32:6 To let the hungry go empty and the thirsty be without drink, (32:6)
Poor people73 A promise of help and healing (57:1-58:14)
58:7 Sharing your bread with the hungry, sheltering the oppressed and the homeless; Clothing the naked when you see them, and not turning your back on your own. (58:7)
50 The land of the Majestic king (33:1-24)
33:5 The LORD is exalted, enthroned on high; he fills Zion with right and justice. (33:5)
Right and justice72 Thecovenant extended to all who obey (55:1-56:12)
56:1 Thus says the LORD: Observe what is right, do what is just; for my salvation is about to come, my justice, about to be revealed.(56:1)
51 Judgment on the nations (34:1-17)
34:2 The LORD is angry with all the nations and is wrathful against all their host; he has doomed them and given them over to slaughter. (34:2)
Wrath of the LORD71 Everlasting mercy (54:1-17)
54:8 In an outburst of wrath, for a moment I hid my face from you; But with enduring love I take pity on you, says the LORD, your redeemer. (54:8)
52 The return of the redeemed to Zion (35:1-10)
35:10 Those whom the LORD has ransomed will return and enter Zion singing, crowned with everlasting joy; They will meet with joy and gladness, sorrow and mourning will flee.(35:10)
People who were ransomed by the LORD70 The suffering servant (52:13-53:12)
53:11 Because of his affliction he shall see the light in fullness of days; Through his suffering, my servant shall justify many, and their guilt he shall bear. (53:11)
53 Sennacherib threatens Jerusalem (36:1-37:38)
defeat of Sennacherib
Foreigners retreated69 Return to Zion (51:1-52:12)
52:1 O Jerusalem, holy city. No longer shall the uncircumcised or the unclean enter you. (52:1)
54 Hizekiah's illness (38:1-39:8)
38:3 "O LORD, remember how faithfully and wholeheartedly I conducted myself in your presence, doing what was pleasing to you!" And Hezekiah wept bitterly. (38:3)
The LORD remembers68 The sercant's humilitation and vindication (50:4-11)
50:8 He is near who upholds my right; if anyone wishes to oppose me, let us appear together. Who disputes my right? Let him confront me. (50:8)
55 God's people are comforted (40:1-11)
40:1 Comfort, give comfort to my people, says your God. (40:1)
The LORD comforts the people67 Zion's children to be brought home (49:7-50:3)
49:13For the LORD comforts his people and shows mercy to his afflicted. (49:13)
56 Creation by God (40:12-31)
40:28 Do you not know or have you not heard? The LORD is the eternal God, creator of the ends of the earth. (40:28)
The ends of the earth66 The servant's mission (49:1-6)
49:6 I will make you a light to the nations, that my salvation may reach to the ends of the earth.(49:6)
57 Israel assured of God's help (41:1-26)
41:18 I will open up rivers on the bare heights, and fountains in the broad valleys; I will turn the desert into a marshland, and the dry ground into springs of water. (41:18)
Given water65 God the redeemer (48:12-22)
48:21 They did not thirst when he led them through dry lands; Water from the rock he set flowing for them; he cleft the rock, and waters welled forth." (48:21)
58 The servant, a light to the nations (41:27-42:25)
42:8 my glory I give to no other, nor my praise to idols (42:8)
Glory of the LORD64 Fulfillment of the prophecy (48:1-11)
48:9 for the sake of my renown I hold it back from you (48:9)
59 Israel's redemption (43:1-28)
43:14 Thus says the LORD, your redeemer, the Holy One of Israel: For your sakes I send to Babylon; I will lower all the bars, and the Chaldeans shall cry out in lamentation.(43:14)
Ruin of Babylon63 The humiliation of Babylon (47:1-15)
47:1 Come down, sit in the dust, O virgin daughter Babylon; Sit on the ground, dethroned, O daughter of the Chaldeans. No longer shall you be called dainty and delicate.(47:1)
60 The absurdity of idol worship (44:1-28)
44:9 Idol makers all amount to nothing, and their precious works are of no avai (44:9)
Useless idol62 Idols cannot save Babylon (45:18-46:13)
45:20 They are without knowledge who bear wooden idols and pray to gods that cannot save (45:20)

Citations of the Bible are from New American Bible, New Revised Standard Version and New Jerusalem Bible.

Creative Commons License
Literary Structure of the Bible by Hajime Murai is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Caution: The copyright of the cited Bible verses belongs to each translator and publisher.