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Literary structure (chiasm, chiasmus) of Epistle to the Galatians

Chiastic Structure and Concentric Structure and Parallel of each pericope

[1]Salutation  (Gal 1:1-5)
  A(1:1-2)  1:1 God the Father who raised him from the dead (1:1)
    B(1:3)    1:3 grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ, (1:3)
  A'(1:4-5)  1:4 who gave himself for our sins (1:4)
   A: Death and resurrection. B: Blessing.

[2]There is no other Gospel  (Gal 1:6-12)
  A(1:6-9)  1:7 there are some who are disturbing you and wish to pervert the gospel of Christ. (1:7)
    B(1:10)    1:10 If I were still trying to please people, I would not be a slave of Christ. (1:10)
  A'(1:11-12)  1:12 For I did not receive it from a human being, nor was I taught it, but it came through a revelation of Jesus Christ. (1:12)
   A: Gospel. B: A slave of Christ.

[3]Paul and the other apostles  (Gal 1:13-2:14)
  A(1:13-17)  1:14 progressed in Judaism beyond many of my contemporaries among my race (1:14)   (Ἰουδαισμῷ)
    B(1:18-20)    1:18 Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem to confer with Kephas and remained with him for fifteen days.(1:18)   (Κηφᾶν)
      C(1:21-24)      1:23 the one who once was persecuting us is now preaching the faith he once tried to destroy (1:23)   (εὐαγγελίζεται)
        D(2:1-6)        2:3 Moreover, not even Titus was compelled to be circumcised,(2:3)
      C'(2:7-10)      2:7 On the contrary, when they saw that I had been entrusted with the gospel to the uncircumcised, just as Peter to the circumcised,(2:7)"   (εὐαγγέλιον)
    B'(2:11-13)    2:11 when Kephas came to Antioch, I opposed him to his face because he clearly was wrong.(2:11)"   (Κηφᾶς)
  A'(2:14)  2:14 how can you compel the Gentiles to live like Jews? (2:14)   (Ἰουδαικῶς)
   A: Judaism. B: Apostles. C: Evangelization. D: Circumcision is not compelled.

[4]Jews and gentiles are saved by faith  (Gal 2:15-21)
  A(2:15-18)  2:16 who know that a person is not justified by works of the law but through faith in Jesus Christ (2:16)   (δικαιοῦται)
    B(2:19)    2:19 For through the law I died to the law, that I might live for God (2:19)"   (ζήσω)
    B'(2:20)    2:20 yet I live, no longer I, but Christ lives in me (2:20)"   (ζῶ)
  A'(2:21)  2:21 for if justification comes through the law, then Christ died for nothing.(2:21)"   (δικαιοσύνη)
   A: Justification. B: To live.

[5]Law or faith  (Gal 3:1-14)
  A(3:1)  3:1 before whose eyes Jesus Christ was publicly portrayed as crucified?(3:1)   (Ξριστὸς)
    B(3:2-4)    3:2 did you receive the Spirit from works of the law, or from faith in what you heard? (3:2)"   (νόμου)
      C(3:5-7)      3:7 Realize then that it is those who have faith who are children of Abraham.(3:7)   (πίστεως)
      C'(3:8-9)      3:9 those who have faith are blessed along with Abraham who had faith. (3:9)   (πίστεως)
    B'(3:10-12)    3:10 For all who depend on works of the law are under a curse (3:10)   (νόμου)
  A'(3:13-14)  3:13 Christ ransomed us from the curse of the law by becoming a curse for us (3:13)   (Ξριστὸσ λ )
   A: Crucifixion of Christ. B: The law. C: Faith.

[6]The promise to Abraham  (Gal 3:15-29)
  A(3:15-18)  3:18 For if the inheritance comes from the law, it is no longer from a promise (3:18)"   (ἐπαγγελίας)
    B(3:19-20)    3:19 Why, then, the law? It was added for transgressions, until the descendant came to whom the promise had been made (3:19)"   (νόμος)
      C(3:21-22)      3:21 Is the law then opposed to the promises? Of course not! (3:21)
    B'(3:23-24)    3:24 Consequently, the law was our disciplinarian for Christ (3:24)"   (νόμος)
  A'(3:25-29)  3:29 And if you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham's descendant, heirs according to the promise.(3:29)"   (ἐπαγγελίαν)
   A: The promise. B: The law. C: Relationship between the promise and the law.

[7]The heir  (Gal 4:1-7)
  A(4:1-2)  4:1 I mean that as long as the heir is not of age, he is no different from a slave, although he is the owner of everything,(4:1)"   (κληρονόμος)
    B(4:3)    4:3 when we were not of age, were enslaved to the elemental powers of the world. (4:3)"   (ὑπὸ τὰ στοιξεῖα)
      C(4:4)      4:4 But when the fullness of time had come, God sent his Son, born of a woman, born under the law, (4:4)
    B'(4:5)    4:5 to ransom those under the law, so that we might receive adoption. (4:5)"   (ὑπὸ νόμον)
  A'(4:6-7)  4:7 So you are no longer a slave but a child, and if a child then also an heir, through God. (4:7)"   (κληρονόμος)
   A: An heir. B: Under some law. C: The Son of God.

[8]Paul reproves the Galatians  (Gal 4:8-18)
  A(4:8-9)  4:9 how can you turn back again to the weak and destitute elemental powers? Do you want to be slaves to them all over again? (4:9)
    B(4:10-11)    4:11 I am afraid on your account that perhaps I have labored for you in vain. (4:11)
      C(4:12)      4:12 You did me no wrong;(4:12)
        D(4:13)        4:13 it was because of a physical illness that I originally preached the gospel to you,(4:13)
      C'(4:14)      4:14 you received me as an angel of God, as Christ Jesus. (4:14)
    B'(4:15-16)    4:16 So now have I become your enemy by telling you the truth? (4:16)
  A'(4:17-18)  4:17 they want to isolate you, so that you may show interest in them.(4:17)
   A: Separating. B: Toils of Paul. C: Good faith of people. D: Evangelization.

[9]The allegory of Hagar and Sarah  (Gal 4:19-5:1)
  A(4:19-20)  4:19 until Christ be formed in you (4:19)   (Ξριστὸς)
    B(4:21-27)    4:23 The son of the slave woman was born naturally, the son of the freeborn through a promise. (4:23)"   (ἐπαγγελίας)
    B'(4:28-31)    4:28 Now you, brothers, like Isaac, are children of the promise. (4:28)"   (ἐπαγγελίας)
  A'(4:5:1)  5:1 For freedom Christ set us free (5:1)   (Ξριστὸς)
   A: Christ. B: The children of the promise.

[10]The nature of Christian freedom  (Gal 5:2-14)
  A(5:2-6)  5:3 Once again I declare to every man who has himself circumcised that he is bound to observe the entire law. (5:3)   (ὅλον τὸν νόμον)
    B(5:7-10)    5:7 who hindered you from following (the) truth?(5:7)
    B'(5:11-12)    5:11 if I am still preaching circumcision, why am I still being persecuted? (5:11)
  A'(5:13-14)  5:14 For the whole law is fulfilled in one statement, namely, "You shall love your neighbor as yourself." (5:14)"   (πᾶς νόμος)
   A: Whole of the law. B: Hindrance.

[11]Flesh and spirit  (Gal 5:15-26)
  A(5:15)  5:15 But if you go on biting and devouring one another, beware that you are not consumed by one another. (5:15)"   (ἀλλήλους)
    B(5:16-18)    5:18 But if you are guided by the Spirit, you are not under the law. (5:18)"   (πνεύματι)
      C(5:19-21)      5:19 Now the works of the flesh are obvious (5:19)   (ἔργα)
      C'(5:22-23)      5:22 In contrast, the fruit of the Spirit is (5:22)"   (καρπὸς)
    B'(5:24-25)    5:25 If we live in the Spirit, let us also follow the Spirit. (5:25)"   (πνεύματι)
  A'(5:26)  5:26 Let us not be conceited, provoking one another, envious of one another.(5:26)"   (ἀλλήλοις)
   A: Fighting each other. B: Guidance of the spirit. C: Comparison between works of flesh and works of the spirit.

[12]Bear one another's burdens  (Gal 6:1-10)
  A(6:1)  6:1 you who are spiritual should correct that one in a gentle spirit, looking to yourself (6:1)"   (πνευματικοὶ)
    B(6:2)    6:2 Bear one another's burdens (6:2)   (βαστάζετε)
      C(6:3-4)      6:4 he will have reason to boast with regard to himself alone, and not with regard to someone else;(6:4)
    B'(6:5-6)    6:5 each will bear his own load (6:5)   (βαστάσει)
  A'(6:7-10)  6:8 the one who sows for the spirit will reap eternal life from the spirit (6:8)   (πνεύματος)
   A: The spirit. B: Burdens. C: Boasting.

[13]Final admonitions and benediction  (Gal 6:11-18)
  A(6:11-13)  6:13 Not even those having themselves circumcised observe the law themselves; they only want you to be circumcised so that they may boast of your flesh.(6:13)
    B(6:14-16)    6:15 but only a new creation. (6:15)
  A'(6:17-18)  6:17 I bear the marks of Jesus on my body.(6:17)
   A: Signs. B: A new creation.

Citations of the Bible are from New American Bible, New Revised Standard Version and New Jerusalem Bible.

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Literary Structure of the Bible by Hajime Murai is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
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