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Literary structure (chiasm, chiasmus) of Book of Maccabees 1

Chiastic Structure and Concentric Structure and Parallel of each pericope

[1]Reign of Antiochus  (1M1:1-64)
 
  A(1:1-24)  Invasion of foreign country
    B(1:25-28)    Sufferings of Israel
      C(1:29-35)      Attack of Antiochus
    B'(1:36-40)    Sufferings of Israel
  A'(1:41-64)  Invasion of foreign country
 
   A: Invasion of foreign country. B: Sufferings of Israel. C: Attack of Antiochus.

[2]Mattathias and his Sons  (2M2:1-70)
 
  A(2:1-5)  2:1 In those days Mattathias, son of John, son of Simeon, a priest of the family of Joarib, left Jerusalem and settled in Modein.(2:1)
    B(2:6-14)    Lamentation of Mattathias
      C(2:15-28)      2:24 When Mattathias saw him, he was filled with zeal; his heart was moved and his just fury was aroused; he sprang forward and killed him upon the altar. (2:24)
        D(2:29-38)        The attack on Shabbat
      C'(2:38-48)      2:45 Mattathias and his friends went about and tore down the pagan altars; (2:45)
    B'(2:49-68)    The last song of Mattathias
  A'(2:69-70)  2:69 Then he blessed them, and he was united with his fathers. (2:69)
 
   A: Life of Mattathias. B: Words of Mattathias. C: Acts of Mattathias. D: The attack on Shabbat.

[3]Judah became the leader  (1M3:1-4:35)
 
  A(3:1-12)  3:12 Their possessions were seized and the sword of Apollonius was taken by Judas, who fought with it the rest of his life. (3:12)
    B(3:13-24)    3:18 But Judas said: "It is easy for many to be overcome by a few; in the sight of Heaven there is no difference between deliverance by many or by few;(3:18)
      C(3:25-41)      3:39 and with them he sent forty thousand men and seven thousand cavalry to invade the land of Judah and ravage it according to the king's orders. (3:39)
        D(3:42-60)        Prayer and fasting
      C'(4:1-7)      4:1 Now Gorgias took five thousand infantry and a thousand picked cavalry, and this detachment set out at night (4:1)
    B'(4:8-15)    4:8 Judas said to the men with him: "Do not be afraid of their numbers or dread their attack. (4:8)
  A'(4:16-35)  4:23 Then Judas went back to plunder the camp, and his men collected much gold and silver, violet and crimson cloth, and great treasure. (4:23)
 
   A: Booty. B: Encouragement of Judah. C: Army of enemies. D: Prayer and fasting.

[4]Purification of the sanctuary  (1M4:36-61)
 
  A(4:36-40)  4:40 and fell with their faces to the ground. And when the signal was given with trumpets, they cried out to Heaven. (4:40)
    B(4:41-51)    4:47 Then they took uncut stones, according to the law, and built a new altar like the former one. (4:47)
  A'(4:52-56)  4:55 All the people prostrated themselves and adored and praised Heaven, who had given them success. (4:55)
    B'(4:57-61)    4:59 Then Judas and his brothers and the entire congregation of Israel decreed that the days of the dedication of the altar should be observed with joy and gladness on the anniversary every year for eight days, from the twenty-fifth day of the month Chislev.(4:59)
 
   A: Heaven and earth. B: The altar.

[5]Unification of Israel  (1M5:1-68)
 
  A(5:1-8)  Victory of Judah
    B(5:9-15)    Defeat of Israel
      C(5:16-23)      Return of the people
        D(5:24-36)        Victory of Judah
        D'(5:37-44)        Victory of Judah
      C'(5:45-54)      Return of the people
    B'(5:55-62)    Defeat of Israel
  A'(5:68-68)  Victory of Judah
 
   A: Victory of Judah. B: Defeat of Israel. C: Return of the people. D: Victory of Judah.

[6]Wars against Antiochus and Demetrius  (1M6:1-7:50)
 
  A(6:1-15)  6:14 he summoned Philip, one of his Friends, and put him in charge of his whole kingdom (6:14)
    B(6:16-17)    6:17 When Lysias learned that the king was dead, he set up the king's son Antiochus, whom he had reared as a child, to be king in his place; and he gave him the title Eupator.(6:17)
      C(6:18-27)      6:21 Some of the besieged escaped, joined by impious Israelites;(6:21)
        D(6:28-46)        6:28 When the king heard this he was angry, and he called together all his Friends, the officers of his army, and the commanders of the cavalry. (6:28)
          E(6:47-54)          6:47 When the Jews saw the strength of the royal army and the ardor of its forces, they retreated from them. (6:47)
  A'(6:55-63)  6:63 Then he departed in haste and returned to Antioch, where he found Philip in possession of the city. He fought against him and took the city by force.(6:63)
    B'(7:1-4)    7:1 In the year one hundred and fifty-one, Demetrius, son of Seleucus, set out from Rome, arrived with a few men in a city on the seacoast, and began to rule there.(7:1)
      C'(7:5-7)      7:5 Then all the lawless and impious men of Israel came to him. They were led by Alcimus, who desired to be high priest.(7:5)
        D'(7:8-24)        7:8 Then the king chose Bacchides, one of the King's Friends, governor of West-of-Euphrates, a great man in the kingdom, and faithful to the king. (7:8)
          E'(7:25-50)          7:25 But when Alcimus saw that Judas and his followers were gaining strength and realized that he could not oppose them, he returned to the king and accused them of grave crimes. (7:25)
 
   A: Philip. B: Coronation. C: Impious Israelites. D: Invasion of enemies. E: Retreat.

[7]Alliance with Rome  (1M8:1-32)
 
  A(8:1-16)  A report about Rome
    B(8:17-20)    Dispatch of the envoy
  A'(8:21-32)  The letter from Rome
 
   A: Reports about Rome. B: Dispatch of the envoy.

[8]The revenge of Judas's death  (1M9:1-73)
 
  A(9:1-4)  9:1 When Demetrius heard that Nicanor and his army had fallen in battle, he again sent Bacchides and Alcimus into the land of Judah, along with the right wing of his army. (9:1)
    B(9:5-18)    War against Bacchides
      C(9:19-22)      Death of Judah
        D(9:23-27)        Governance of Bacchides
          E(9:28-31)          Words for Jonathan
            F(9:32-42)            9:42 Having taken their revenge for the blood of their brother, the Jews returned to the marshes of the Jordan. (9:42)
          E'(9:43-49)          Words of Jonathan
        D'(9:50-53)        Governance of Bacchides
      C'(9:54-57)      Death of Alcimus
    B'(9:58-68)    War against Bacchides
  A'(9:69-73)  9:69 he was angry with the lawless men who had advised him to invade the province. He killed many of them and resolved to return to his own country. (9:69)
 
   A: Invasion of Bacchides. B: War against Bacchides. C: Death. D: Governance of Bacchides. E: Words of Jonathan. F: Revenge for the blood of the brother.

[9]Jonathan became the high priest  (1M10:1-89)
 
  A(10:1-2)  10:2 When King Demetrius heard of it, he mustered a very large army and marched out to engage him in combat. (10:2)
    B(10:3-14)    10:3 Demetrius sent a letter to Jonathan written in peaceful terms, to pay him honor; (10:3)
      C(10:15-20)      10:20 We have therefore appointed you today to be high priest of your nation (10:20)
        D(10:21-47)        The letter of Demetrius
          E'(10:48-50)          Death of Demetrius
        D'(10:51-54)        The letter of Alexander
      C'(10:55-66)      10:65 The king also honored him by numbering him among his Chief Friends and made him military commander and governor of the province. (10:65)
    B'(10:67-73)    The letter of Apollonius
  A'(10:74-89)  10:74 When Jonathan heard the message of Apollonius, he was roused. Choosing ten thousand men, he set out from Jerusalem, and Simon his brother joined him to help him. (10:74)
 
   A: Departure of the army. B: The letters from side of Demetrius. C: Coronation of Jonathan. D: The letter for alliances. E: Death of Demetrius.

[10]Establishment of the position of Jonathan  (1M11:1-74)
 
  A(11:1-7)  11:7 Jonathan accompanied the king as far as the river called Eleutherus and then returned to Jerusalem.(11:7)
    B(11:8-18)    Coronation of Ptolemy
      C(11:19-37)      Cooperation with Demetrius
        D(11:38-40)        Withdrawal of Demetrius
      C'(11:41-53)      Cooperation with Demetrius
    B'(11:54-59)    Coronation of Antiochus
  A'(11:60-74)  11:74 Then Jonathan returned to Jerusalem.(11:74)
 
   A: Return of Jonathan. B: Coronations. C: Cooperation with Demetrius. D: Withdrawal of Demetrius.

[11]Alliance with Rome  (1M12:1-23)
 
  A(12:1-2)  12:2 He also sent letters to Sparta and other places for the same purpose.(12:2)
    B(12:3-4)    12:4 The Romans gave them letters addressed to the authorities in the various places, requesting them to provide the envoys with safe conduct to the land of Judah. (12:4)
  A'(12:5-18)  12:5 This is a copy of the letter that Jonathan wrote to the Spartans: (12:5)
    B'(12:19-23)    12:19 This is a copy of the letter that was sent to Onias: (12:19)
 
   A: The letters from Israel. B: The letters to Israel.

[12]Jonathan was defeated  (1M12:24-53)
 
  A(12:24-38)  Jonathan was deceived by Demetrius
    B'(12:39-45)    Plot of Triphon
  A'(12:46-53)  Jonathan was deceived by Trypho
 
   A: Jonathan was deceived. B: Plot of Triphon.

[13]Death of Jonathan  (1M13:1-42)
 
  A(13:1-11)  13:8 They shouted in reply: "You are our leader in place of your brothers Judas and Jonathan. (13:8)
    B(13:12-19)    13:19 So he sent the boys and the hundred talents; but Trypho broke his promise and would not let Jonathan go. (13:19)
      C(13:20-24)      Death of Jonathan
    B'(13:25-30)    13:25 Simon sent for the remains of his brother Jonathan, and buried him in Modein, the city of his fathers. (13:25)
  A'(13:31-42)  Coronation of Simon
 
   A: Coronation of Simon. B: Simon's acts for Jonathan. C: Death of Jonathan.

[14]Simon became the leader  (1M13:43-14:15)
 
  A(13:43-50)  13:43 In those days Simon besieged Gazara and surrounded it with troops. He made a siege machine, pushed it up against the city, and attacked and captured one of the towers.(13:43)
    B(13:51-53)    13:51 On the twenty-third day of the second month, in the year one hundred and seventy-one, the Jews entered the citadel with shouts of jubilation, waving of palm branches, the music of harps and cymbals and lyres, and the singing of hymns and canticles, because a great enemy of Israel had been destroyed.(13:51)
  A'(14:1-3)  14:3 The general went forth and defeated the army of Demetrius; he captured him and brought him to Arsaces, who put him in prison. (14:3)
    B'(14:4-15)    14:4 The land was at rest all the days of Simon, who sought the good of his nation. His people were delighted with his power and his magnificence throughout his reign. (14:4)
 
   A: Wars. B: Governance of Simon.

[15]The monument  (1M14:16-49)
 
  A(14:16-18)  14:18 they sent him inscribed tablets of bronze to renew with him the friendship and alliance that they had established with his brothers Judas and Jonathan. (14:18)
    B(14:19-24)    Contents of the letter
  A'(14:25-26)  14:26 So they made an inscription on bronze tablets, which they affixed to pillars on Mount Zion.(14:26)
    B'(14:27-49)    Contents of the tablets
 
   A: The inscriptions. B: Contents of the inscriptions.

[16]The wars of Antiochus and Trypho  (1M15:1-41)
 
  A(15:1-9)  The letter of Antiochus
    B(15:10-14)    15:10 In the year one hundred and seventy-four Antiochus invaded the land of his ancestors, and all the troops rallied to him, so that few were left with Trypho.(15:10)
  A'(15:15-24)  The letter of Rome
    B'(15:25-41)    15:25 When King Antiochus was encamped before Dor, he assaulted it continuously both with troops and with the siege machines he had made. He blockaded Trypho by preventing anyone from going in or out. (15:25)
 
   A: The letters. B: Wars between Antiochus and Trypho.

[17]Death of Simon  (1M16:1-24)
 
  A(16:1-10)  John succeeded his father
    B(16:11-20)    Death of Simon
  A'(16:21-24)  John succeeded his father
 
   A: John succeeded his father. B: Death of Simon.


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