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Literary structure (chiasmus, chiasm) of Book of Job

Chiasmus and Concentric Structure of divided by 3


3-1

1 Job's fortunes and sufferings (1:1-2:10)
  2 Job's friends (2:11-13)
    3 Job curses the day he was born (3:1-26)
      4 First dialogue of Eliphaz and Job (4:1-7:21)
        5 First dialogue of Bildad and Job (8:1-10:22)
      6 First dialogue of Zophar and Job (11:1-14:22)
    7 Second dialogue of Eliphaz and Job (15:1-17:16)
  8 Second dialogue of Bildad and Job (18:1-19:29)
9 Second dialogue of Zophar and Job (20:1-21:34)
Former halfRelationLatter half
1 Job's fortunes and sufferings (1:1-2:10)
1:3 and he had seven thousand sheep, three thousand camels, five hundred yoke of oxen, five hundred she-asses, and a great number of work animals, so that he was greater than any of the men of the East.(1:3)
A person who has the property9 Second dialogue of Zophar and Job (20:1-21:34)
21:16 If their happiness is not in their own hands and if the counsel of the wicked is repulsive to God, (21:16)
2 Job's friends (2:11-13)
2:11 Now when three of Job's friends heard of all the misfortune that had come upon him, (2:11)
Friends of Job8 Second dialogue of Bildad and Job (18:1-19:29)
19:21 Pity me, pity me, O you my friends, for the hand of God has struck me! (19:21)
3 Job curses the day he was born (3:1-26)
May darkness and gloom claim it, clouds settle upon it, the blackness of night affright it! (3:5)
Darkness and death7 Second dialogue of Eliphaz and Job (15:1-17:16)
If I look for the nether world as my dwelling, if I spread my couch in the darkness, (17:13)
3 Job curses the day he was born (3:1-26)
Rejoice in it exultingly, and are glad when they reach the grave: (3:22)
Comfort grave7 Second dialogue of Eliphaz and Job (15:1-17:16)
If I must call corruption "my father," and the maggot "my mother" and "my sister," (17:14)
4 First dialogue of Eliphaz and Job (4:1-7:21)
Teach me, and I will be silent; prove to me wherein I have erred. (6:24)
Be silent, speak6 First dialogue of Zophar and Job (11:1-14:22)
Be silent, let me alone! that I may speak and give vent to my feelings. (13:13)
4 First dialogue of Eliphaz and Job (4:1-7:21)
What strength have I that I should endure, and what is my limit that I should be patient? (6:11)
Waiting the God6 First dialogue of Zophar and Job (11:1-14:22)
Slay me though he might, I will wait for him; I will defend my conduct before him. (13:15)

3-1-1

1 Job's fortunes and sufferings (1:1-2:10)
  2 Job's friends (2:11-13)
    3 Job curses the day he was born (3:1-26)
  4 First dialogue of Eliphaz and Job (4:1-7:21)
5 First dialogue of Bildad and Job (8:1-10:22)
Former halfRelationLatter half
1 Job's fortunes and sufferings (1:1-2:10)
see 5-1
see 5-15 First dialogue of Bildad and Job (8:1-10:22)
see 5-1
2 Job's friends (2:11-13)
see 5-1
see 5-14 First dialogue of Eliphaz and Job (4:1-7:21)
see 5-1

3-1-2

5 First dialogue of Bildad and Job (8:1-10:22)
  6 First dialogue of Zophar and Job (11:1-14:22)
    7 Second dialogue of Eliphaz and Job (15:1-17:16)
  8 Second dialogue of Bildad and Job (18:1-19:29)
9 Second dialogue of Zophar and Job (20:1-21:34)
Former halfRelationLatter half
5 First dialogue of Bildad and Job (8:1-10:22)
see 1-1-1
see 1-1-19 Second dialogue of Zophar and Job (20:1-21:34)
see 1-1-1
6 First dialogue of Zophar and Job (11:1-14:22)
see 1-1-1
see 1-1-18 Second dialogue of Bildad and Job (18:1-19:29)
see 1-1-1

3-2

9 Second dialogue of Zophar and Job (20:1-21:34)
  10 Third dialogue of Eliphaz and Job (22:1-24:25)
    11 Third dialogue of Bildad and Job (25:1-26:14)
      12 Words of Job (27:1-23)
        13 Where wisdom is found (28:1-28)
      14 Words of Job (29:1-31:40)
    15 Elifu rebukes Job and Job's friend (32:1-33:33)
  16 Elifu proclaims God's justice (34:1-37)
17 Elifu condemns self-righteousness (35:1-16)
Former halfRelationLatter half
9 Second dialogue of Zophar and Job (20:1-21:34)
see 1-1
see 1-117 Elifu condemns self-righteousness (35:1-16)
see 1-1
10 Third dialogue of Eliphaz and Job (22:1-24:25)
see 1-1
see 1-116 Elifu proclaims God's justice (34:1-37)
see 1-1
11 Third dialogue of Bildad and Job (25:1-26:14)
see 1-1
see 1-115 Elifu rebukes Job and Job's friend (32:1-33:33)
see 1-1
12 Words of Job (27:1-23)
see 1-1
see 1-114 Words of Job (29:1-31:40)
see 1-1

3-2-1

9 Second dialogue of Zophar and Job (20:1-21:34)
  10 Third dialogue of Eliphaz and Job (22:1-24:25)
    11 Third dialogue of Bildad and Job (25:1-26:14)
  12 Words of Job (27:1-23)
13 Where wisdom is found (28:1-28)
Former halfRelationLatter half
9 Second dialogue of Zophar and Job (20:1-21:34)
21:22 Can anyone teach God knowledge, seeing that he judges those on high?(21:22)
Knowledge / wisdom13 Where wisdom is found (28:1-28)
28:28 And to man he said: Behold, the fear of the LORD is wisdom; and avoiding evil is understanding.(28:28)
10 Third dialogue of Eliphaz and Job (22:1-24:25)
24:22 To him who rises without assurance of his life 24:23 he gives safety and support. He sustains the mighty by his strength, and his eyes are on their ways. 24:24 They are exalted for a while, and then they are gone; they are laid low and, like all others, are gathered up; like ears of grain they shrivel. (24:22-24)
False prosperity of wicked person12 Words of Job (27:1-23)
27:13 This is the portion of a wicked man from God, the inheritance an oppressor receives from the Almighty: 27:14 Though his children be many, the sword is their destiny. His offspring shall not be filled with bread. (27:13-14)

3-2-2

13 Where wisdom is found (28:1-28)
  14 Words of Job (29:1-31:40)
    15 Elifu rebukes Job and Job's friend (32:1-33:33)
  16 Elifu proclaims God's justice (34:1-37)
17 Elifu condemns self-righteousness (35:1-16)
Former halfRelationLatter half
13 Where wisdom is found (28:1-28)
28:20 Whence, then, comes wisdom, and where is the place of understanding? (28:20)
Where is 17 Elifu condemns self-righteousness (35:1-16)
35:10 Saying, "Where is God, my Maker, who has given visions in the night, (35:10)
14 Words of Job (29:1-31:40)
29:3 While he kept his lamp shining above my head, and by his light I walked through darkness; (29:3)
Walking in the darkness16 Elifu proclaims God's justice (34:1-37)
34:21 For his eyes are upon the ways of man, and he beholds all his steps. 34:22 There is no darkness so dense that evildoers can hide in it. (34:21-22)

3-3

17 Elifu condemns self-righteousness (35:1-16)
  18 Elifu proclaims God's majesty (36:1-37:24)
    19 The LORD answers Job (38:1-39:30)
      20 Words of the LORD (40:1-2)
        21 Words of Job (40:3-5)
      22 Words of the LORD (40:6-41:26)
    23 Words of Job (42:1-6)
  24 Job's friends are humiliated (42:7-10)
25 Job's fortunes (42:11-17)
Former halfRelationLatter half
17 Elifu condemns self-righteousness (35:1-16)
35:7 If you are righteous, what do you give him, or what does he receive from your hand? (35:7)
Giving to God / giving by God25 Job's fortunes (42:11-17)
42:12 Thus the LORD blessed the latter days of Job more than his earlier ones. For he had fourteen thousand sheep, six thousand camels, a thousand yoke of oxen, and a thousand she-asses. (42:12)
18 Elifu proclaims God's majesty (36:1-37:24)
He withholds not the just man's rights, but grants vindication to the oppressed, (36:6)
Judgment of God24 Job's friends are humiliated (42:7-10)
Now, therefore, take seven bullocks and seven rams, and go to my servant Job, and offer up a holocaust for yourselves; and let my servant Job pray for you; for his prayer I will accept, not to punish you severely. For you have not spoken rightly concerning me, as has my servant Job." (42:8)
19 The LORD answers Job (38:1-39:30)
Who is this that obscures divine plans with words of ignorance? (38:2)
Who is this?23 Words of Job (42:1-6)
Who is this that hides counsel without knowledge? (42:3 NRSV)
20 Words of the LORD (40:1-2)
Words of the LORD to Job
Words of the LORD22 Words of the LORD (40:6-41:26)
Words of the LORD to Job

3-3-1

17 Elifu condemns self-righteousness (35:1-16)
  18 Elifu proclaims God's majesty (36:1-37:24)
    19 The LORD answers Job (38:1-39:30)
  20 Words of the LORD (40:1-2)
21 Words of Job (40:3-5)
Former halfRelationLatter half
17 Elifu condemns self-righteousness (35:1-16)
see 1-1-2
see 1-1-221 Words of Job (40:3-5)
see 1-1-2
18 Elifu proclaims God's majesty (36:1-37:24)
see 1-1-2
see 1-1-220 Words of the LORD (40:1-2)
see 1-1-2

3-3-2

21 Words of Job (40:3-5)
  22 Words of the LORD (40:6-41:26)
    23 Words of Job (42:1-6)
  24 Job's friends are humiliated (42:7-10)
25 Job's fortunes (42:11-17)
Former halfRelationLatter half
21 Words of Job (40:3-5)
see 5-5
see 5-525 Job's fortunes (42:11-17)
see 5-5
22 Words of the LORD (40:6-41:26)
see 5-5
see 5-524 Job's friends are humiliated (42:7-10)
see 5-5

Citations of the Bible are from New American Bible, New Revised Standard Version and New Jerusalem Bible.

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Literary Structure of the Bible by Hajime Murai is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
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