FAQ       Top  >  Literary Structure of the Bible  >  Epistle to the Romans  >  1

Literary structure (chiasmus, chiasm) of Epistle to the Romans

Chiasmus and Concentric Structure of whole text


1-1

1 Salutation (1:1-7)
  2 Prayer of thanksgiving (1:8-15)
    3 The power of the Gospel (1:16-17)
      4 The guilt of humankind (1:18-32)
        5 The righteous judgment of God (2:1-16)
          6 The Jews and the law (2:17-29)
            7 None is righteous (3:1-18)
              8 Righteousness through faith (3:19-31)
                9 The example of Abraham (4:1-12)
                  10 God's promise realized through faith (4:13-25)
                    11 Results of justification (5:1-11)
                      12 Adam and Christ (5:12-21)
                        13 Dying and rising with Christ (6:1-23)
                          14 An analogy from marriage (7:1-6)
                            15 The inner conflict (7:7-25)
                              16 Life in the spirit (8:1-17)
                            17 Future glory (8:18-30)
                          18 God's election of Israel (8:31-39)
                        19 God's wrath and mercy (9:1-29)
                      20 Israel's unbelief (9:30-10:21)
                    21 Salvation is for all (11:1-10)
                  22 Israel's rejection is not final (11:11-24)
                23 All Israel will be saved (11:25-36)
              24 The new life in Christ (12:1-21)
            25 Being subject to authorities (13:1-7)
          26 Love for one another (13:8-14)
        27 Do not judge another (14:1-23)
      28 Please others, not yourselves (15:1-13)
    29 Paul's reason for writing so boldly (15:14-21)
  30 Paul's plan to visit Rome (15:22-33)
31 Personal greetings and final instructions (16:1-27)
Former halfRelationLatter half
1 Salutation (1:1-7)
to all the beloved of God in Rome, called to be holy. Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. (1:7)
Salutation31 Personal greetings and final instructions (16:1-27)
to the only wise God, through Jesus Christ be glory forever and ever. Amen. (16:27)
2 Prayer of thanksgiving (1:8-15)
that is why I am eager to preach the gospel also to you in Rome. (1:15)
Wishing to visit Rome30 Paul's plan to visit Rome (15:22-33)
15:23 But now, since I no longer have any opportunity in these regions and since I have desired to come to you for many years, 15:24 I hope to see you in passing as I go to Spain (15:23-24)
3 The power of the Gospel (1:16-17)
For I am not ashamed of the gospel. It is the power of God for the salvation of everyone who believes: for Jew first, and then Greek. (1:16)
Paul proclaims the gospel29 Paul's reason for writing so boldly (15:14-21)
Thus I aspire to proclaim the gospel not where Christ has already been named, so that I do not build on another's foundation, (15:20)
4 The guilt of humankind (1:18-32)
They exchanged the truth of God for a lie and revered and worshiped the creature rather than the creator, (1:25)
The truth of God28 Please others, not yourselves (15:1-13)
For I say that Christ became a minister of the circumcised to show Gods truthfulness, to confirm the promises to the patriarchs, (15:8)
5 The righteous judgment of God (2:1-16)
Therefore, you are without excuse, every one of you who passes judgment. For by the standard by which you judge another you condemn yourself, since you, the judge, do the very same things. (2:1)
Don't judge others27 Do not judge another (14:1-23)
The one who eats must not despise the one who abstains, and the one who abstains must not pass judgment on the one who eats; (14:3)
5 The righteous judgment of God (2:1-16)
on the day when, according to my gospel, God will judge peoples hidden works through Christ Jesus. (2:16)
The day of the judgment of the LORD27 Do not judge another (14:1-23)
For we shall all stand before the judgment seat of God; (14:10)
6 The Jews and the law (2:17-29)
2:21 then you who teach another, are you failing to teach yourself? You who preach against stealing, do you steal? 2:22 You who forbid adultery, do you commit adultery? You who detest idols, do you rob temples? (2:21-22)
Commandments of the law26 Love for one another (13:8-14)
13:9 The commandments, "You shall not commit adultery; you shall not kill; you shall not steal; you shall not covet," and whatever other commandment there may be, are summed up in this saying, (namely) "You shall love your neighbor as yourself." (13:9)
7 None is righteous (3:1-18)
3:8 And why not say--as we are accused and as some claim we say--that we should do evil that good may come of it? Their penalty is what they deserve. (3:8)
Rewards of good and evil25 Being subject to authorities (13:1-7)
13:4 for it is a servant of God for your good. But if you do evil, be afraid, for it does not bear the sword without purpose; it is the servant of God to inflict wrath on the evildoer. (13:4)
8 Righteousness through faith (3:19-31)
What occasion is there then for boasting? It is ruled out. (3:27)
Don't be proud24 The new life in Christ (12:1-21)
For by the grace given to me I tell everyone among you not to think of himself more highly than one ought to think, but to think soberly, each according to the measure of faith that God has apportioned. (12:3)
8 Righteousness through faith (3:19-31)
whom God set forth as an expiation, through faith, by his blood, to prove his righteousness because of the forgiveness of sins previously committed, (3:25)
Self sacrifice24 The new life in Christ (12:1-21)
I urge you therefore, brothers, by the mercies of God, to offer your bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and pleasing to God, your spiritual worship. (12:1)
9 The example of Abraham (4:1-12)
And he received the sign of circumcision as a seal on the righteousness received through faith while he was uncircumcised. Thus he was to be the father of all the uncircumcised who believe, so that to them (also) righteousness might be credited, (4:11)
Election of ancestors23 All Israel will be saved (11:25-36)
In respect to the gospel, they are enemies on your account; but in respect to election, they are beloved because of the patriarchs. (11:28)
10 God's promise realized through faith (4:13-25)
For this reason, it depends on faith, so that it may be a gift, and the promise may be guaranteed to all his descendants, not to those who only adhere to the law but to those who follow the faith of Abraham, who is the father of all of us, (4:16)
Because of faith22 Israel's rejection is not final (11:11-24)
That is so. They were broken off because of unbelief, but you are there because of faith. (11:20)
11 Results of justification (5:1-11)
we have been admitted into God's favour (5:2)
Favour21 Salvation is for all (11:1-10)
11:5 So also at the present time there is a remnant, chosen by grace. (11:5)
12 Adam and Christ (5:12-21)
For if, by the transgression of one person, death came to reign through that one, how much more will those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of justification come to reign in life through the one person Jesus Christ. (5:17)
Justification by Christ20 Israel's unbelief (9:30-10:21)
For Christ is the end of the law for the justification of everyone who has faith. (10:4)
13 Dying and rising with Christ (6:1-23)
We were indeed buried with him through baptism into death, so that, just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, we too might live in newness of life. (6:4)
Glorified19 God's wrath and mercy (9:1-29)
This was to make known the riches of his glory to the vessels of mercy, which he has prepared previously for glory, (9:23)
14 An analogy from marriage (7:1-6)
7:4 In the same way, my brothers, you also were put to death to the law through the body of Christ, so that you might belong to another, to the one who was raised from the dead in order that we might bear fruit for God. (7:4)
Through resurrection of Christ18 God's election of Israel (8:31-39)
8:34 Who will condemn? It is Christ (Jesus) who died, rather, was raised, who also is at the right hand of God, who indeed intercedes for us. (8:34)
15 The inner conflict (7:7-25)
7:24 Miserable one that I am! Who will deliver me from this mortal body? 7:25 Thanks be to God through Jesus Christ our Lord. Therefore, I myself, with my mind, serve the law of God but, with my flesh, the law of sin. (7:24-25)
Liberation from slavery of sin17 Future glory (8:18-30)
that creation itself would be set free from slavery to corruption and share in the glorious freedom of the children of God. (8:21)

1-1-1

1 Salutation (1:1-7)
  2 Prayer of thanksgiving (1:8-15)
    3 The power of the Gospel (1:16-17)
      4 The guilt of humankind (1:18-32)
        5 The righteous judgment of God (2:1-16)
          6 The Jews and the law (2:17-29)
            7 None is righteous (3:1-18)
              8 Righteousness through faith (3:19-31)
              9 The example of Abraham (4:1-12)
            10 God's promise realized through faith (4:13-25)
          11 Results of justification (5:1-11)
        12 Adam and Christ (5:12-21)
      13 Dying and rising with Christ (6:1-23)
    14 An analogy from marriage (7:1-6)
  15 The inner conflict (7:7-25)
16 Life in the spirit (8:1-17)
Former halfRelationLatter half
1 Salutation (1:1-7)
1:3 the gospel about his Son, descended from David according to the flesh, 1:4 but established as Son of God in power according to the spirit of holiness through resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord. (1:3-4)
Spirit and flesh16 Life in the spirit (8:1-17)
For those who live according to the flesh are concerned with the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the spirit with the things of the spirit. (8:5)
2 Prayer of thanksgiving (1:8-15)
I do not want you to be unaware, brothers, that I often planned to come to you, though I was prevented until now, that I might harvest some fruit among you, too, as among the rest of the Gentiles. (1:13)
Person cannot do what he wants to do15 The inner conflict (7:7-25)
For I know that good does not dwell in me, that is, in my flesh. The willing is ready at hand, but doing the good is not. (7:18)
3 The power of the Gospel (1:16-17)
as it is written, "The one who is righteous by faith will live." (1:17)
New life14 An analogy from marriage (7:1-6)
But now we are released from the law, dead to what held us captive, so that we may serve in the newness of the spirit and not under the obsolete letter. (7:6)
4 The guilt of humankind (1:18-32)
Although they know the just decree of God that all who practice such things deserve death, they not only do them but give approval to those who practice them. (1:32)
Death caused by sin13 Dying and rising with Christ (6:1-23)
For the wages of sin is death (6:23)
5 The righteous judgment of God (2:1-16)
For by the standard by which you judge another you condemn yourself, since you, the judge, do the very same things. (2:1)
Sin and judgment12 Adam and Christ (5:12-21)
And the gift is not like the result of the one person's sinning. For after one sin there was the judgment that brought condemnation; but the gift, after many transgressions, brought acquittal. (5:16)
6 The Jews and the law (2:17-29)
2:17 Now if you call yourself a Jew and rely on the law and boast of God 2:18 and know his will and are able to discern what is important since you are instructed from the law, (2:17-18)
Boasting of the laws / Christ11 Results of justification (5:1-11)
through whom we have gained access (by faith) to this grace in which we stand, and we boast in hope of the glory of God. (5:2)
7 None is righteous (3:1-18)
3:3 What if some were unfaithful? Will their infidelity nullify the fidelity of God? (3:3)
Belief and unbelief10 God's promise realized through faith (4:13-25)
4:20 He did not doubt God's promise in unbelief; rather, he was empowered by faith and gave glory to God(4:20)
8 Righteousness through faith (3:19-31)
the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all who believe. For there is no distinction; (3:22)
Righteousness by faith9 The example of Abraham (4:1-12)
Abraham believed God, and it was credited to him as righteousness.(4:3)

1-1-2

16 Life in the spirit (8:1-17)
  17 Future glory (8:18-30)
    18 God's election of Israel (8:31-39)
      19 God's wrath and mercy (9:1-29)
        20 Israel's unbelief (9:30-10:21)
          21 Salvation is for all (11:1-10)
            22 Israel's rejection is not final (11:11-24)
              23 All Israel will be saved (11:25-36)
              24 The new life in Christ (12:1-21)
            25 Being subject to authorities (13:1-7)
          26 Love for one another (13:8-14)
        27 Do not judge another (14:1-23)
      28 Please others, not yourselves (15:1-13)
    29 Paul's reason for writing so boldly (15:14-21)
  30 Paul's plan to visit Rome (15:22-33)
31 Personal greetings and final instructions (16:1-27)
Former halfRelationLatter half
16 Life in the spirit (8:1-17)
For the law of the spirit of life in Christ Jesus has freed you from the law of sin and death. (8:2)
Ruin of evil31 Personal greetings and final instructions (16:1-27)
then the God of peace will quickly crush Satan under your feet. The grace of our Lord Jesus be with you. (16:20)
17 Future glory (8:18-30)
and not only that, but we ourselves, who have the firstfruits of the Spirit, we also groan within ourselves as we wait for adoption, the redemption of our bodies. (8:23)
Spirit is given30 Paul's plan to visit Rome (15:22-33)
for if the Gentiles have come to share in their spiritual blessings, they ought also to serve them in material blessings. (15:27)
18 God's election of Israel (8:31-39)
I am certain of this (8:38)
Conviction29 Paul's reason for writing so boldly (15:14-21)
I myself am convinced about you (15:14)
19 God's wrath and mercy (9:1-29)
Those who were not my people I will call 'my people,' and her who was not beloved I will call 'beloved.' (9:25)
Salvation for Gentiles28 Please others, not yourselves (15:1-13)
Therefore, I will praise you among the Gentiles and sing praises to your name. (15:9)
20 Israel's unbelief (9:30-10:21)
They stumbled over the stone that causes stumbling, (9:32)
Stumbling27 Do not judge another (14:1-23)
but rather resolve never to put a stumbling block or hindrance in the way of a brother. (14:13)
21 Salvation is for all (11:1-10)
Lord, they have killed your prophets (11:3)
Kill26 Love for one another (13:8-14)
13:9You shall not commit adultery; you shall not kill; you shall not steal; you shall not covet, (13:9)
22 Israel's rejection is not final (11:11-24)
So do not become haughty, but stand in awe. (11:20)
Fear25 Being subject to authorities (13:1-7)
For rulers are not a cause of fear to good conduct, but to evil. Do you wish to have no fear of authority? Then do what is good and you will receive approval from it, (13:3)
23 All Israel will be saved (11:25-36)
I do not want you to be unaware of this mystery, brothers, so that you will not become wise (in) your own estimation: (11:25)
Do not be wise in your own estimation24 The new life in Christ (12:1-21)
do not be wise in your own estimation. (12:16)

Citations of the Bible are from New American Bible, New Revised Standard Version and New Jerusalem Bible.

Creative Commons License
Literary Structure of the Bible by Hajime Murai is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Caution: The copyright of the cited Bible verses belongs to each translator and publisher.