FAQ       Top  >  Literary Structure of the Bible  >  Book of Maccabees 1  >  4

Literary structure (chiasmus, chiasm) of Book of Maccabees 1

Chiasmus and Concentric Structure of divided by 4


4-1

1 Reign of Antiochus (1:1-64)
  2 Mattathias and his Sons (2:1-70)
    3 Judah became the leader (3:1-4:35)
  4 Purification of the sanctuary (4:36-61)
5 Unification of Israel (5:1-68)
Former halfRelationLatter half
1 Reign of Antiochus (1:1-64)
1:54 On the fifteenth day of the month Chislev, in the year one hundred and forty-five, the king erected the horrible abomination upon the altar of holocausts, and in the surrounding cities of Judah they built pagan altars.(1:54)
Idolatry5 Unification of Israel (5:1-68)
5:68 Judas then turned toward Azotus in the land of the Philistines. He destroyed their altars and burned the statues of their gods; and after plundering their cities he returned to the land of Judah.(5:68)
2 Mattathias and his Sons (2:1-70)
2:12 We see our sanctuary and our beauty and our glory laid waste, And the Gentiles have defiled them! (2:12)
Desolation of the sanctuary4 Purification of the sanctuary (4:36-61)
4:38 They found the sanctuary desolate, the altar desecrated, the gates burnt, weeds growing in the courts as in a forest or on some mountain, and the priests' chambers demolished. (4:38)

4-2

5 Unification of Israel (5:1-68)
  6 Wars against Antiochus and Demetrius (6:1-7:50)
    7 Alliance with Rome (8:1-32)
  8 The revenge of Judas's death (9:1-73)
9 Jonathan became the high priest (10:1-89)
Former halfRelationLatter half
5 Unification of Israel (5:1-68)
5:68 Judas then turned toward Azotus in the land of the Philistines. He destroyed their altars and burned the statues of their gods; and after plundering their cities he returned to the land of Judah.(5:68)
Destruction of the pagan9 Jonathan became the high priest (10:1-89)
10:84 But Jonathan burned and plundered Azotus with its neighboring towns, and destroyed by fire both the temple of Dagon and the men who had taken refuge in it. (10:84)
6 Wars against Antiochus and Demetrius (6:1-7:50)
7:8 Then the king chose Bacchides, one of the King's Friends, governor of West-of-Euphrates, a great man in the kingdom, and faithful to the king. (7:8)
Fights with Bacchides8 The revenge of Judas's death (9:1-73)
9:1 When Demetrius heard that Nicanor and his army had fallen in battle, he again sent Bacchides and Alcimus into the land of Judah, along with the right wing of his army. (9:1)

4-3

9 Jonathan became the high priest (10:1-89)
  10 Establishment of the position of Jonathan (11:1-74)
    11 Alliance with Rome (12:1-23)
  12 Jonathan was defeated (12:24-53)
13 Death of Jonathan (13:1-42)
Former halfRelationLatter half
9 Jonathan became the high priest (10:1-89)
10:3 Demetrius sent a letter to Jonathan written in peaceful terms, to pay him honor; (10:3)
Alliance with Demetrius13 Death of Jonathan (13:1-42)
13:35 In reply, King Demetrius sent him the following letter: (13:35)
10 Establishment of the position of Jonathan (11:1-74)
11:13 Then Ptolemy entered Antioch and assumed the crown of Asia; he thus wore two crowns on his head, that of Egypt and that of Asia.(11:13)
The crown of Asia12 Jonathan was defeated (12:24-53)
12:39 Trypho was determined to become king of Asia, assume the crown, and do away with King Antiochus. (12:39)

4-4

13 Death of Jonathan (13:1-42)
  14 Simon became the leader (13:43-14:15)
    15 The monument (14:16-49)
  16 The wars of Antiochus and Trypho (15:1-41)
17 Death of Simon (16:1-24)
Former halfRelationLatter half
13 Death of Jonathan (13:1-42)
13:23 When he was approaching Baskama, he had Jonathan killed and buried there.(13:23)
Death of the brothers17 Death of Simon (16:1-24)
16:16 Then, when Simon and his sons had drunk freely, Ptolemy and his men sprang up, weapons in hand, rushed upon Simon in the banquet hall, and killed him, his two sons, and some of his servants. (16:16)
14 Simon became the leader (13:43-14:15)
14:4 The land was at rest all the days of Simon, who sought the good of his nation. His people were delighted with his power and his magnificence throughout his reign. (14:4)
Prosperity of Simon16 The wars of Antiochus and Trypho (15:1-41)
15:32 So Athenobius, the king's Friend, came to Jerusalem and on seeing the splendor of Simon's court, the gold and silver plate on the sideboard, and the rest of his rich display, he was amazed. When he gave him the king's message, (15:32)

Citations of the Bible are from New American Bible, New Revised Standard Version and New Jerusalem Bible.

Creative Commons License
Literary Structure of the Bible by Hajime Murai is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Caution: The copyright of the cited Bible verses belongs to each translator and publisher.