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Literary structure (chiasmus, chiasm) of Epistle to the Romans

Chiasmus and Concentric Structure of divided by 3


3-1

1 Salutation (1:1-7)
  2 Prayer of thanksgiving (1:8-15)
    3 The power of the Gospel (1:16-17)
      4 The guilt of humankind (1:18-32)
        5 The righteous judgment of God (2:1-16)
          6 The Jews and the law (2:17-29)
        7 None is righteous (3:1-18)
      8 Righteousness through faith (3:19-31)
    9 The example of Abraham (4:1-12)
  10 God's promise realized through faith (4:13-25)
11 Results of justification (5:1-11)
Former halfRelationLatter half
1 Salutation (1:1-7)
Through him we have received the grace of apostleship, to bring about the obedience of faith, for the sake of his name, among all the Gentiles, (1:5)
Receiving the grace of apostleship11 Results of justification (5:1-11)
through whom we have gained access (by faith) to this grace in which we stand, and we boast in hope of the glory of God. (5:2)
2 Prayer of thanksgiving (1:8-15)
that is, that you and I may be mutually encouraged by one another's faith, yours and mine. (1:12)
Encouraged by faith10 God's promise realized through faith (4:13-25)
He did not doubt God's promise in unbelief; rather, he was empowered by faith and gave glory to God (4:20)
3 The power of the Gospel (1:16-17)
For in it is revealed the righteousness of God from faith to faith; (1:17)
Justification by faith9 The example of Abraham (4:1-12)
Abraham believed God, and it was credited to him as righteousness. (4:3)
4 The guilt of humankind (1:18-32)
and exchanged the glory of the immortal God for the likeness of an image of mortal man or of birds or of four-legged animals or of snakes. (1:23)
Being deprived of the glory of God because of sin8 Righteousness through faith (3:19-31)
all have sinned and are deprived of the glory of God. (3:23)
5 The righteous judgment of God (2:1-16)
2:2 We know that the judgment of God on those who do such things is true. (2:2)
Judgement and the truth of God7 None is righteous (3:1-18)
3:4 Of course not! God must be true, though every human being is a liar, as it is written: "That you may be justified in your words, and conquer when you are judged."(3:4)

3-1-1

1 Salutation (1:1-7)
  2 Prayer of thanksgiving (1:8-15)
    3 The power of the Gospel (1:16-17)
    4 The guilt of humankind (1:18-32)
  5 The righteous judgment of God (2:1-16)
6 The Jews and the law (2:17-29)
Former halfRelationLatter half
1 Salutation (1:1-7)
Through him we have received the grace of apostleship, to bring about the obedience of faith, for the sake of his name, among all the Gentiles, (1:5)
Obedience to faith6 The Jews and the law (2:17-29)
Rather, one is a Jew inwardly, and circumcision is of the heart, in the spirit, not the letter; his praise is not from human beings but from God. (2:29)
2 Prayer of thanksgiving (1:8-15)
God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit in proclaiming the gospel of his Son, that I remember you constantly, (1:9)
Gospel of Christ5 The righteous judgment of God (2:1-16)
on the day when, according to my gospel, God will judge people's hidden works through Christ Jesus. (2:16)
3 The power of the Gospel (1:16-17)
For in it is revealed the righteousness of God from faith to faith; (1:17)
Revelation of God4 The guilt of humankind (1:18-32)
The wrath of God is indeed being revealed from heaven against every impiety and wickedness of those who suppress the truth by their wickedness. (1:18)

3-1-2

6 The Jews and the law (2:17-29)
  7 None is righteous (3:1-18)
    8 Righteousness through faith (3:19-31)
    9 The example of Abraham (4:1-12)
  10 God's promise realized through faith (4:13-25)
11 Results of justification (5:1-11)
Former halfRelationLatter half
6 The Jews and the law (2:17-29)
see 1-1-1
see 1-1-111 Results of justification (5:1-11)
see 1-1-1
7 None is righteous (3:1-18)
see 1-1-1
see 1-1-110 God's promise realized through faith (4:13-25)
see 1-1-1
8 Righteousness through faith (3:19-31)
see 1-1-1
see 1-1-19 The example of Abraham (4:1-12)
see 1-1-1

3-2

11 Results of justification (5:1-11)
  12 Adam and Christ (5:12-21)
    13 Dying and rising with Christ (6:1-23)
      14 An analogy from marriage (7:1-6)
        15 The inner conflict (7:7-25)
          16 Life in the spirit (8:1-17)
        17 Future glory (8:18-30)
      18 God's election of Israel (8:31-39)
    19 God's wrath and mercy (9:1-29)
  20 Israel's unbelief (9:30-10:21)
21 Salvation is for all (11:1-10)
Former halfRelationLatter half
11 Results of justification (5:1-11)
see 1-1
see 1-121 Salvation is for all (11:1-10)
see 1-1
12 Adam and Christ (5:12-21)
see 1-1
see 1-120 Israel's unbelief (9:30-10:21)
see 1-1
13 Dying and rising with Christ (6:1-23)
see 1-1
see 1-119 God's wrath and mercy (9:1-29)
see 1-1
14 An analogy from marriage (7:1-6)
see 1-1
see 1-118 God's election of Israel (8:31-39)
see 1-1
15 The inner conflict (7:7-25)
see 1-1
see 1-117 Future glory (8:18-30)
see 1-1

3-2-1

11 Results of justification (5:1-11)
  12 Adam and Christ (5:12-21)
    13 Dying and rising with Christ (6:1-23)
    14 An analogy from marriage (7:1-6)
  15 The inner conflict (7:7-25)
16 Life in the spirit (8:1-17)
Former halfRelationLatter half
11 Results of justification (5:1-11)
Indeed, if, while we were enemies, we were reconciled to God through the death of his Son, how much more, once reconciled, will we be saved by his life. (5:10)
Liberation from death by Christ16 Life in the spirit (8:1-17)
For the law of the spirit of life in Christ Jesus has freed you from the law of sin and death. (8:2)
12 Adam and Christ (5:12-21)
for up to the time of the law, sin was in the world, though sin is not accounted when there is no law. (5:13)
The law teaches sin15 The inner conflict (7:7-25)
Yet I did not know sin except through the law, (7:7)
13 Dying and rising with Christ (6:1-23)
We were indeed buried with him through baptism into death, so that, just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, we too might live in newness of life. (6:4)
Death and resurrection with Christ14 An analogy from marriage (7:1-6)
In the same way, my brothers, you also were put to death to the law through the body of Christ, so that you might belong to another, to the one who was raised from the dead in order that we might bear fruit for God. (7:4)

3-2-2

16 Life in the spirit (8:1-17)
  17 Future glory (8:18-30)
    18 God's election of Israel (8:31-39)
    19 God's wrath and mercy (9:1-29)
  20 Israel's unbelief (9:30-10:21)
21 Salvation is for all (11:1-10)
Former halfRelationLatter half
16 Life in the spirit (8:1-17)
But if Christ is in you, although the body is dead because of sin, the spirit is alive because of righteousness. (8:10)
Comparison of life and death21 Salvation is for all (11:1-10)
Lord, they have killed your prophets, they have torn down your altars, and I alone am left, and they are seeking my life. (11:3)
17 Future glory (8:18-30)
And those he predestined he also called; and those he called he also justified; and those he justified he also glorified. (8:30)
Justification20 Israel's unbelief (9:30-10:21)
That Gentiles, who did not pursue righteousness, have achieved it, that is, righteousness that comes from faith; (9:30)
18 God's election of Israel (8:31-39)
8:37 No, in all these things we conquer overwhelmingly through him who loved us. (8:37)
Beloved19 God's wrath and mercy (9:1-29)
9:25 As indeed he says in Hosea: "Those who were not my people I will call 'my people,' and her who was not beloved I will call 'beloved.'(9:25)

3-3

21 Salvation is for all (11:1-10)
  22 Israel's rejection is not final (11:11-24)
    23 All Israel will be saved (11:25-36)
      24 The new life in Christ (12:1-21)
        25 Being subject to authorities (13:1-7)
          26 Love for one another (13:8-14)
        27 Do not judge another (14:1-23)
      28 Please others, not yourselves (15:1-13)
    29 Paul's reason for writing so boldly (15:14-21)
  30 Paul's plan to visit Rome (15:22-33)
31 Personal greetings and final instructions (16:1-27)
Former halfRelationLatter half
21 Salvation is for all (11:1-10)
What Israel was seeking it did not attain, but the elect attained it (11:7)
Chosen31 Personal greetings and final instructions (16:1-27)
16:13 Greet Rufus, chosen in the Lord (16:13)
22 Israel's rejection is not final (11:11-24)
Now if their transgression is enrichment for the world, and if their diminished number is enrichment for the Gentiles, how much more their full number. (11:12)
Salvation of Jews by gentiles30 Paul's plan to visit Rome (15:22-33)
they decided to do it, and in fact they are indebted to them, for if the Gentiles have come to share in their spiritual blessings, they ought also to serve them in material blessings. (15:27)
23 All Israel will be saved (11:25-36)
I do not want you to be unaware of this mystery, brothers, so that you will not become wise (in) your own estimation: (11:25)
Warning to brother29 Paul's reason for writing so boldly (15:14-21)
I myself am convinced about you, my brothers, that you yourselves are full of goodness, filled with all knowledge, and able to admonish one another. (15:14)
24 The new life in Christ (12:1-21)
12:4 For as in one body we have many parts, and all the parts do not have the same function, 12:5 so we, though many, are one body in Christ and individually parts of one another. (12:4-5)
Help each other as one body28 Please others, not yourselves (15:1-13)
15:1 We who are strong ought to put up with the failings of the weak and not to please ourselves; 15:2 let each of us please our neighbor for the good, for building up. (15:1-2)
25 Being subject to authorities (13:1-7)
Pay to all their dues, taxes to whom taxes are due, toll to whom toll is due, respect to whom respect is due, honor to whom honor is due. (13:7)
Preferable way of life27 Do not judge another (14:1-23)
it is good not to eat meat or drink wine or do anything that causes your brother to stumble. (14:21)

3-3-1

21 Salvation is for all (11:1-10)
  22 Israel's rejection is not final (11:11-24)
    23 All Israel will be saved (11:25-36)
    24 The new life in Christ (12:1-21)
  25 Being subject to authorities (13:1-7)
26 Love for one another (13:8-14)
Former halfRelationLatter half
21 Salvation is for all (11:1-10)
see 1-1-2
see 1-1-226 Love for one another (13:8-14)
see 1-1-2
22 Israel's rejection is not final (11:11-24)
see 1-1-2
see 1-1-225 Being subject to authorities (13:1-7)
see 1-1-2
23 All Israel will be saved (11:25-36)
see 1-1-2
see 1-1-224 The new life in Christ (12:1-21)
see 1-1-2

3-3-2

26 Love for one another (13:8-14)
  27 Do not judge another (14:1-23)
    28 Please others, not yourselves (15:1-13)
    29 Paul's reason for writing so boldly (15:14-21)
  30 Paul's plan to visit Rome (15:22-33)
31 Personal greetings and final instructions (16:1-27)
Former halfRelationLatter half
26 Love for one another (13:8-14)
And do this because you know the time; it is the hour now for you to awake from sleep. For our salvation is nearer now than when we first believed; (13:11)
Arrival of salvation31 Personal greetings and final instructions (16:1-27)
but now manifested through the prophetic writings and, according to the command of the eternal God, made known to all nations to bring about the obedience of faith, (16:26)
27 Do not judge another (14:1-23)
For the kingdom of God is not a matter of food and drink, but of righteousness, peace, and joy in the holy Spirit; (14:17)
Spirit and body30 Paul's plan to visit Rome (15:22-33)
for if the Gentiles have come to share in their spiritual blessings, they ought also to serve them in material blessings. (15:27)
28 Please others, not yourselves (15:1-13)
Therefore, I will praise you among the Gentiles and sing praises to your name. (15:9)
Prophecy about salvation of gentiles29 Paul's reason for writing so boldly (15:14-21)
Those who have never been told of him shall see, and those who have never heard of him shall understand. (15:21)

Citations of the Bible are from New American Bible, New Revised Standard Version and New Jerusalem Bible.

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Literary Structure of the Bible by Hajime Murai is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
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