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Literary structure (chiasmus, chiasm) of Epistle to the Romans

Chiasmus and Concentric Structure of divided by 5


5-1

1 Salutation (1:1-7)
  2 Prayer of thanksgiving (1:8-15)
    3 The power of the Gospel (1:16-17)
      4 The guilt of humankind (1:18-32)
    5 The righteous judgment of God (2:1-16)
  6 The Jews and the law (2:17-29)
7 None is righteous (3:1-18)
Former halfRelationLatter half
1 Salutation (1:1-7)
1:7 to all the beloved of God in Rome, called to be holy. Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.(1:7)
Peace7 None is righteous (3:1-18)
3:17 and the way of peace they know not. (3:17)
2 Prayer of thanksgiving (1:8-15)
For I long to see you, that I may share with you some spiritual gift so that you may be strengthened, (1:11)
Spiritual gift6 The Jews and the law (2:17-29)
Rather, one is a Jew inwardly, and circumcision is of the heart, in the spirit, not the letter; (2:29)
3 The power of the Gospel (1:16-17)
For in it is revealed the righteousness of God from faith to faith; (1:17)
Righteousness of God5 The righteous judgment of God (2:1-16)
For it is not those who hear the law who are just in the sight of God; rather, those who observe the law will be justified. (2:13)

5-1-1

1 Salutation (1:1-7)
  2 Prayer of thanksgiving (1:8-15)
  3 The power of the Gospel (1:16-17)
4 The guilt of humankind (1:18-32)
Former halfRelationLatter half
1 Salutation (1:1-7)
1:2 which he promised previously through his prophets in the holy scriptures, 1:3 the gospel about his Son, descended from David according to the flesh, (1:2-3)
Revelation / natural theology4 The guilt of humankind (1:18-32)
Ever since the creation of the world, his invisible attributes of eternal power and divinity have been able to be understood and perceived in what he has made. As a result, they have no excuse; (1:20)
2 Prayer of thanksgiving (1:8-15)
God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit in proclaiming the gospel of his Son, (1:9)
Proclaiming Gospel3 The power of the Gospel (1:16-17)
For I am not ashamed of the gospel. It is the power of God for the salvation of everyone who believes: for Jew first, and then Greek. (1:16)

5-1-2

4 The guilt of humankind (1:18-32)
  5 The righteous judgment of God (2:1-16)
  6 The Jews and the law (2:17-29)
7 None is righteous (3:1-18)
Former halfRelationLatter half
4 The guilt of humankind (1:18-32)
1:29 They are filled with every form of wickedness, evil, greed, and malice; full of envy, murder, rivalry, treachery, and spite. They are gossips 1:30 and scandalmongers and they hate God. They are insolent, haughty, boastful, ingenious in their wickedness, and rebellious toward their parents. 1:31 They are senseless, faithless, heartless, ruthless. (1:29-31)
Sin of person7 None is righteous (3:1-18)
3:10 as it is written: "There is no one just, not one, 3:11 there is no one who understands, there is no one who seeks God. 3:12 All have gone astray; all alike are worthless; there is not one who does good, (there is not) even one. 3:13 Their throats are open graves; they deceive with their tongues; the venom of asps is on their lips; 3:14 their mouths are full of bitter cursing. 3:15 Their feet are quick to shed blood; 3:16 ruin and misery are in their ways, 3:17 and the way of peace they know not. 3:18 There is no fear of God before their eyes." (3:10-18)
5 The righteous judgment of God (2:1-16)
For it is not those who hear the law who are just in the sight of God; rather, those who observe the law will be justified. (2:13)
Fulfilling the law6 The Jews and the law (2:17-29)
Circumcision, to be sure, has value if you observe the law; but if you break the law, your circumcision has become uncircumcision. (2:25)

5-2

7 None is righteous (3:1-18)
  8 Righteousness through faith (3:19-31)
    9 The example of Abraham (4:1-12)
      10 God's promise realized through faith (4:13-25)
    11 Results of justification (5:1-11)
  12 Adam and Christ (5:12-21)
13 Dying and rising with Christ (6:1-23)
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7 None is righteous (3:1-18)
Not entirely, for we have already brought the charge against Jews and Greeks alike that they are all under the domination of sin, (3:9)
Domination of sin13 Dying and rising with Christ (6:1-23)
We know that our old self was crucified with him, so that our sinful body might be done away with, that we might no longer be in slavery to sin. (6:6)
8 Righteousness through faith (3:19-31)
3:23 all have sinned and are deprived of the glory of God. 3:24 They are justified freely by his grace through the redemption in Christ Jesus, (3:23-24)
Salvation by Christ12 Adam and Christ (5:12-21)
For if by that one person's transgression the many died, how much more did the grace of God and the gracious gift of the one person Jesus Christ overflow for the many. (5:15)
9 The example of Abraham (4:1-12)
Abraham believed God, and it was credited to him as righteousness. (4:3)
Justification11 Results of justification (5:1-11)
How much more then, since we are now justified by his blood, will we be saved through him from the wrath. (5:9)

5-2-1

7 None is righteous (3:1-18)
  8 Righteousness through faith (3:19-31)
  9 The example of Abraham (4:1-12)
10 God's promise realized through faith (4:13-25)
Former halfRelationLatter half
7 None is righteous (3:1-18)
see 1-1-1
see 1-1-110 God's promise realized through faith (4:13-25)
see 1-1-1
8 Righteousness through faith (3:19-31)
see 1-1-1
see 1-1-19 The example of Abraham (4:1-12)
see 1-1-1

5-2-2

10 God's promise realized through faith (4:13-25)
  11 Results of justification (5:1-11)
  12 Adam and Christ (5:12-21)
13 Dying and rising with Christ (6:1-23)
Former halfRelationLatter half
10 God's promise realized through faith (4:13-25)
it was also for us, to whom it will be credited, who believe in the one who raised Jesus our Lord from the dead, (4:24)
Death and resurrection with Christ13 Dying and rising with Christ (6:1-23)
We were indeed buried with him through baptism into death, so that, just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, we too might live in newness of life. (6:4)
11 Results of justification (5:1-11)
How much more then, since we are now justified by his blood, will we be saved through him from the wrath. (5:9)
Justification by Christ12 Adam and Christ (5:12-21)
For if, by the transgression of one person, death came to reign through that one, how much more will those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of justification come to reign in life through the one person Jesus Christ. (5:17)

5-3

13 Dying and rising with Christ (6:1-23)
  14 An analogy from marriage (7:1-6)
    15 The inner conflict (7:7-25)
      16 Life in the spirit (8:1-17)
    17 Future glory (8:18-30)
  18 God's election of Israel (8:31-39)
19 God's wrath and mercy (9:1-29)
Former halfRelationLatter half
13 Dying and rising with Christ (6:1-23)
see 1-1
see 1-119 God's wrath and mercy (9:1-29)
see 1-1
14 An analogy from marriage (7:1-6)
see 1-1
see 1-118 God's election of Israel (8:31-39)
see 1-1
15 The inner conflict (7:7-25)
see 1-1
see 1-117 Future glory (8:18-30)
see 1-1

5-3-1

13 Dying and rising with Christ (6:1-23)
  14 An analogy from marriage (7:1-6)
  15 The inner conflict (7:7-25)
16 Life in the spirit (8:1-17)
Former halfRelationLatter half
13 Dying and rising with Christ (6:1-23)
so that, just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, we too might live in newness of life. (6:4)
New life16 Life in the spirit (8:1-17)
But if Christ is in you, although the body is dead because of sin, the spirit is alive because of righteousness. (8:10)
14 An analogy from marriage (7:1-6)
For when we were in the flesh, our sinful passions, awakened by the law, worked in our members to bear fruit for death. (7:5)
Flesh serves law of sin15 The inner conflict (7:7-25)
Therefore, I myself, with my mind, serve the law of God but, with my flesh, the law of sin. (7:25)

5-3-2

16 Life in the spirit (8:1-17)
  17 Future glory (8:18-30)
  18 God's election of Israel (8:31-39)
19 God's wrath and mercy (9:1-29)
Former halfRelationLatter half
16 Life in the spirit (8:1-17)
For what the law, weakened by the flesh, was powerless to do, this God has done: by sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for the sake of sin, he condemned sin in the flesh (8:3)
Children of the promise19 God's wrath and mercy (9:1-29)
This means that it is not the children of the flesh who are the children of God, but the children of the promise are counted as descendants (9:8)
17 Future glory (8:18-30)
And those he predestined he also called; and those he called he also justified; and those he justified he also glorified. (8:30)
Justification18 God's election of Israel (8:31-39)
8:33 Who will bring a charge against God's chosen ones? It is God who acquits us. (8:33)

5-4

19 God's wrath and mercy (9:1-29)
  20 Israel's unbelief (9:30-10:21)
    21 Salvation is for all (11:1-10)
      22 Israel's rejection is not final (11:11-24)
    23 All Israel will be saved (11:25-36)
  24 The new life in Christ (12:1-21)
25 Being subject to authorities (13:1-7)
Former halfRelationLatter half
19 God's wrath and mercy (9:1-29)
But who indeed are you, a human being, to talk back to God? Will what is made say to its maker,"Why have you created me so?" (9:20)
Created by God25 Being subject to authorities (13:1-7)
Let every person be subordinate to the higher authorities, for there is no authority except from God, and those that exist have been established by God. (13:1)
20 Israel's unbelief (9:30-10:21)
Because they did it not by faith, but as if it could be done by works. They stumbled over the stone that causes stumbling, (9:32)
Don't be proud24 The new life in Christ (12:1-21)
For by the grace given to me I tell everyone among you not to think of himself more highly than one ought to think, but to think soberly, each according to the measure of faith that God has apportioned. (12:3)
21 Salvation is for all (11:1-10)
What Israel was seeking it did not attain, but the elect attained it; (11:7)
Election23 All Israel will be saved (11:25-36)
in respect to election, they are beloved because of the patriarchs. (11:28)

5-4-1

19 God's wrath and mercy (9:1-29)
  20 Israel's unbelief (9:30-10:21)
  21 Salvation is for all (11:1-10)
22 Israel's rejection is not final (11:11-24)
Former halfRelationLatter half
19 God's wrath and mercy (9:1-29)
Parable of a potter
Selection of God22 Israel's rejection is not final (11:11-24)
Parable of a branch
20 Israel's unbelief (9:30-10:21)
but that Israel, who pursued the law of righteousness, did not attain to that law? (9:31)
Salvation of Israel21 Salvation is for all (11:1-10)
What Israel was seeking it did not attain, but the elect attained it; (11:7)

5-4-2

22 Israel's rejection is not final (11:11-24)
  23 All Israel will be saved (11:25-36)
  24 The new life in Christ (12:1-21)
25 Being subject to authorities (13:1-7)
Former halfRelationLatter half
22 Israel's rejection is not final (11:11-24)
see 1-1-2
see 1-1-225 Being subject to authorities (13:1-7)
see 1-1-2
23 All Israel will be saved (11:25-36)
see 1-1-2
see 1-1-224 The new life in Christ (12:1-21)
see 1-1-2

5-5

25 Being subject to authorities (13:1-7)
  26 Love for one another (13:8-14)
    27 Do not judge another (14:1-23)
      28 Please others, not yourselves (15:1-13)
    29 Paul's reason for writing so boldly (15:14-21)
  30 Paul's plan to visit Rome (15:22-33)
31 Personal greetings and final instructions (16:1-27)
Former halfRelationLatter half
25 Being subject to authorities (13:1-7)
For rulers are not a cause of fear to good conduct, but to evil. Do you wish to have no fear of authority? Then do what is good and you will receive approval from it, (13:3)
Good and evil31 Personal greetings and final instructions (16:1-27)
I want you to be wise as to what is good, and simple as to what is evil; (16:19)
26 Love for one another (13:8-14)
Love does no evil to the neighbor; hence, love is the fulfillment of the law. (13:10)
Love30 Paul's plan to visit Rome (15:22-33)
I urge you, (brothers,) by our Lord Jesus Christ and by the love of the Spirit, (15:30)
27 Do not judge another (14:1-23)
Then let us no longer judge one another, (14:13)
Don't judge / admonish each other29 Paul's reason for writing so boldly (15:14-21)
I myself am convinced about you, my brothers, that you yourselves are full of goodness, filled with all knowledge, and able to admonish one another. (15:14)

5-5-1

25 Being subject to authorities (13:1-7)
  26 Love for one another (13:8-14)
  27 Do not judge another (14:1-23)
28 Please others, not yourselves (15:1-13)
Former halfRelationLatter half
25 Being subject to authorities (13:1-7)
Pay to all their dues, taxes to whom taxes are due, toll to whom toll is due, respect to whom respect is due, honor to whom honor is due. (13:7)
Fulfillment of obligation28 Please others, not yourselves (15:1-13)
15:1 We who are strong ought to put up with the failings of the weak and not to please ourselves; 15:2 let each of us please our neighbor for the good, for building up. (15:1-2)
26 Love for one another (13:8-14)
Love does no evil to the neighbor; hence, love is the fulfillment of the law. (13:10)
The law and love for others27 Do not judge another (14:1-23)
If your brother is being hurt by what you eat, your conduct is no longer in accord with love. (14:15)

5-5-2

28 Please others, not yourselves (15:1-13)
  29 Paul's reason for writing so boldly (15:14-21)
  30 Paul's plan to visit Rome (15:22-33)
31 Personal greetings and final instructions (16:1-27)
Former halfRelationLatter half
28 Please others, not yourselves (15:1-13)
Welcome one another, then, as Christ welcomed you, for the glory of God. (15:7)
Keeping peace with brothers31 Personal greetings and final instructions (16:1-27)
I urge you, brothers, to watch out for those who create dissensions and obstacles, in opposition to the teaching that you learned; avoid them. (16:17)
29 Paul's reason for writing so boldly (15:14-21)
so that from Jerusalem all the way around to Illyricum I have finished preaching the gospel of Christ. (15:19)
Jerusalem, journey of Paul30 Paul's plan to visit Rome (15:22-33)
Now, however, I am going to Jerusalem to minister to the holy ones. (15:25)

Citations of the Bible are from New American Bible, New Revised Standard Version and New Jerusalem Bible.

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Literary Structure of the Bible by Hajime Murai is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
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